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20 Matching questions

  1. ________ is often paraphrased as "the present is the key to the past."
  2. The ________ forms the relatively cool, brittle plates of plate tectonics.
  3. The composition of the core of Earth is thought to be ________.
  4. The currently accepted age of Earth is ________ years.
  5. The continental shelf is located ________.
  6. The ________ proposes that the bodies of our solar system formed at essentially the same time from a rotating cloud of gases and dust.
  7. Compared to the age of Earth accepted as correct today, how did 17th and 18th century proponents of catastrophism envision the Earth's age?
  8. ________ was the highly influential, ancient Greek philosopher noted for his writings and teachings on natural philosophy and on the workings of Earth.
  9. A ________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.
  10. The ________ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.
  11. ________ is the process by which rocks breakdown in place to produce soils and sediments.
  12. In sedimentary rocks, lithification includes ________.
  13. What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?
  14. Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?
  15. In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?
  16. ________ rocks form by crystallization and consolidation of molten magma.
  17. The most prominent features on the ocean floor are the ________.
  18. ________ rocks always originate at the surface of the solid Earth.
  19. ________ was an important 18th-century English geologist and proponent of uniformitarianism.
  20. ________, a popular natural philosophy of the 17th and early 18th centuries, was based on a firm belief in a very short geologic history for Earth.
  1. a 4.6 billion
  2. b Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing the geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.
  3. c Lithification
  4. d solid iron-nickel alloy
  5. e Uniformitarianism
  6. f They believed Earth to be much younger than current estimates.
  7. g landward of the continental slope
  8. h law
  9. i biosphere
  10. j Catastrophism
  11. k inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
  12. l Aristotle
  13. m Igneous
  14. n lithosphere
  15. o Nebular Theory
  16. p James Ussher
  17. q Any sedimentary deposit accumulates on top of older rock or sediment layers.
  18. r Sedimentary
  19. s compaction and cementation
  20. t oceanic ridges