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64 Matching questions

  1. When a rock is buried it is subjected to greater confining pressure which tends to make the rock more __________.
    A. buoyant
    B. elongated
    C. Fragile
    D. dense
  2. Which of the following presents the eras of the Phanerozoic eon in the correct order, from most recent to oldest?
    A. Mesozoic, Cenozoic, Paleozoic
    B. Cenozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic
    C. Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
    D. Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic
  3. The number of _________ in an atom gives the atom its atomic number.
    A. protons
    B. electrons
    C. positions
    D. neutrons
  4. How many protons (p) and neutrons (n) comprise an alpha particle?
    A. 1p, 1n
    B. 3p, 2n
    C. 2p, 2n
    D. 29, 1n
  5. The number of protons plus neutrons in an atom's nucleus is the atom's __________ number.
    A. mass
    B. isotope
    C. key
    D. atomic
  6. Which one of these metamorphic rocks is composed predominantly of a single mineral?
    A. garnet-mica schist
    B. gneiss
    C. marble
    D. bauxite
  7. Increased pressure on rocks during metamorphism may result in:
    A. rocks becoming plastic in behavior
    B. changes in rock texture & mineralogy
    C. re-orientation of mineral grains
    D. closer atomic packing and compression, elongation or rotation of mineral grains
    E. All of the above
  8. Exposures of metamorphic rocks are most widespread in:
    A. young mountains
    B. shields
    C. oceanic Islands
    D. plateaus
    E. stable platforms
  9. The age of the Earth is about
    A. 4.5 million yrs
    B. 540 million yrs
    C. 4.5 billion yrs
    D. 12.6 billion yrs
  10. After the third half-life, the fraction of the original radioactive atoms remaining will be __________.
    A. one-half
    B. one-fourth
    C. one-eighth
    D. one-sixteenth
  11. __________ dates pinpoint the time in history when something took place.
    A. Relative
    B. chronological
    C. numerical
  12. __________ dating is the task of placing rock units and geologic events in their proper sequence.
    A. Numerical
    B. Relative
    C. Sequence
    D. Radioactive
  13. The Hadean, Archean, and Proterozoic are:
    A. Eons that collectively comprise Precambrian
    B. epochs of the quaternary Period
    C. eras of the Phanerozoic eon
    D. Periods of the Paleozoic era
  14. Which of the following is NOT the result of metamorphism?
    A. growth of new materials
    B. development of alignment of minerals within the rock body
    C. re-crystallization of minerals
    D. deep weathering of feldspar-rich rocks
    E. conglomerate pebbles deformed into long elliptical shapes
  15. Which of the following pairs of parent rock and its metamorphosed equivalent is NOT correctly matched?
    A. sandstone - quartzite
    B. shale - slate
    C. limestone - schist
    D. granite - gneiss
    E. conglomerate - metaconglomerate
  16. Which is the smallest time span on the geologic time scale?
    A. Era
    B. epoch
    C. eon
    D. period
    E. none
  17. Which of the following index minerals indicates lowest grade metamorphism?
    A. chlorite
    B. biotite
    C. garnet
    D. staurolite
    E. sillimanite
  18. The texture exhibited by slate, schist, and gneiss is called
    A. fracture
    B. stratification.
    C. cleavage
    D. foliation
    E. alignment
  19. Which of these rocks is not a metamorphic rock?
    A. slate
    B. marble
    C. sandstone
    D. quartzite
    E. gneiss
  20. Atoms which have the same atomic numbers, but different mass numbers, are referred to as __________.
    A. ions
    B. catalysts
    C. isotopes
    D. variants
  21. The "layered" or "banded" appearance resulting from mineral alignment in a metamorphic rock is termed:
    A. pseudo-crystallization
    B. Bedding
    C. foliation
    D. orientation
  22. The most common chemically active fluid involved in the metamorphic process is hot water containing ions in solution.
    A. True
    B. False
  23. In the geologic time scale, era names represent important differences in __________.
    A. continental uplift
    B. mountain building episodes
    C. volcanic events
    D. dominant life-forms
  24. When we observe strata that are inclined at a steep angle, we can conclude that they were tilted sometime after their deposition by applying this relative dating principle.
    A. superposition
    B. cross-cutting
    C. inclusion
    D. original horizontality
  25. We are presently living in the __________ era.
    A. Hadean
    B. Paleozoic
    C. Cenozoic
    D. Mesozoic
  26. The parallel re-alignment of rod-like minerals during metamorphism is:
    A. slaty cleavage
    B. schistocity
    C. banding
    D. lineation
    E. foliation
  27. Which of the following is a non-foliated metamorphic rock?
    A. Slate
    B. Garnet-mica schist
    C. Gneiss
    D. Quartzite
  28. Which era of the Phanerozoic eon has the most Periods?
    A. Mesozoic
    B. Paleozoic
    C. Cenozoic
    D. all have the same number
  29. Which one of the following is NOT a type of unconformity?
    A. transitional unconformity
    B. disconformity
    C. nonconformity
    D. angular unconformity
  30. The only metamorphic rock in this list is:
    A. sandstone
    B. basalt
    C. slate
    D. shale
    E. rhyolite
  31. When stress is applied unequally in different directions, it is termed __________.
    A. confining pressure
    B. confining stress
    C. differential pressure
    D. differential stress
  32. Which of the following metamorphic rocks is most likely to be formed at the oceanic trench where an oceanic crust is being subducted underneath another plate
    A. Greenscist facies
    B. Granulite facies
    C. Eclogite facies
    D. Blueschist facies
    E. Sanidinite
  33. What is the major source of heat for contact metamorphism?
    A. deep burial
    B. Frictional heat created by moving fault
    C. Heat from the decomposition of minerals
    D. Heat from a nearby magma body
  34. When a beta particle is emitted from the nucleus of an atom:
    A. neutron becomes a proton
    B. an electron changes to a neutron
    C. a proton changes to a neutron
    D. a proton changes to a neutron
  35. Which of the following rocks does not belong to the group?
    A. Gneiss
    B. Granite
    C. Slate
    D. Marble
    E. Hornfels
  36. On the geologic time scale, __________ represent the greatest expanses of time.
    A. epochs
    B. eras
    C. eons
    D. periods
    E. none of the above
  37. Metamorphism
    A. occurs during the deep burial of rock bodies
    B. occurs around igneous intrusion
    C. develops from strong directed horizontal stresses
    D. commonly produces foliation that is not parallel with the original bedding of the rock being metamorphosed
    E. all of the above
  38. Which one of the following is a foliated metamorphic rock?
    A. quartzite
    B. anthracite coal
    C. Granite
    D. Gneiss
  39. Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about metamorphic rocks?
    A. The original rocks have been intensely altered.
    B. Grains commonly have a preferred orientation.
    C. They constitute a large part of the continental crust.
    D. They are commonly strongly stratified.
  40. Which of the following metamorphic rocks is formed under very low pressure and low temperature?
    A. Zeolite
    B. Blueschist
    C. Greenschist
    D. Granulite
    E. Sanidinite
  41. Each era is divided into smaller units called __________, which may be further divided into __________.
    A. stages; period
    B. epochs; ages
    C. ages; stages
    D. periods; epochs
  42. The rate of radioactive decay for each unstable radioactive isotope is expressed as its __________.
    A. half-life
    B. degeneration curve
    C. deep span
    D. radioactive term
  43. Which one of the following is NOT a type of radioactive decay?
    A. alpha capture
    B. beta emission
    C. neutron capture
    D. electron capture
  44. Which of the following can cause metamorphism?
    A. chemical action of fluids
    B. increases in pressure
    C. increases in temperature
    D. all of the above
  45. What type of unconformity consists of folded sedimentary rocks overlain by younger, more flat-lying strata?
    A. nonconformity
    B. reversed conformity
    C. disconformity
    D. angular unconformity
  46. Which of the following is NOT foliated metamorphic rock?
    A. gneiss
    B. schist
    C. slate
    D. marble
  47. Which of the following is most likely to have
    a granular texture?
    A. Marble
    B. anthracite
    C. migmatite
    D. Gneiss
    E. A and B
  48. Eocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene are examples of
    A. eons
    B. Periods
    C. Eras
    D. Epochs
  49. Which of the following metamorphic rocks represents the highest intensity of metamorphism?
    A. slate
    B. quartzite
    C. schist
    D. gneiss
    E. marble
  50. Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks are usually composed of __________.
    A. elongated mineral graind
    B. equidimensional mineral grains
    C. a mixture of elongated and equidimensional mineral grains
    D. None of the above
  51. Eons are divided into one of these:
    A. Era
    B. epoch
    C. eon
    D. period
    E. none
  52. Isotopes of the same atom will have different numbers of __________.
    A. protons
    B. ions
    C. electrons
    D. neutrons
  53. The parallel arrangement of large platy minerals is best described as
    A. slaty cleaveage
    B. schistosity
    C. gneissic layering
    D. metasomatism
    E. migmatite
  54. Which of the following metamorphic rocks has a porphyroblastic texture?
    A. Garnet-mica schist
    B. Slate
    C. Gneiss
    D. Quartzite
    E. Mylonite
  55. Collectively, the Hadean, Archean, and Proterozoic eons are often referred to as the __________.
    A. Paleozoic
    B. Mesozoic
    C. Pleistocene
    D. Precambrian
  56. Marble is metamorphosed from which of the following rocks?
    A. Shale
    B. Quartz sandstone
    C. Granite
    D. Limestone
    E. Siltstone
  57. Which one of the following is not an agent of metamorphism?
    A. Pressure (stress)
    B. heat
    C. Crystallization
    D. Chemically active fluid
  58. Which is the subdivision of an epoch?
    A. Era
    B. epoch
    C. eon
    D. period
    E. none
  59. Breaks or gaps in the rock record in which strata on both sides of the unconformity are parallel is:
    A. a disconformity
    B. a nonconformity
    C. an angular unconformity
    D. a conformity
  60. During metamorphism, elongated crystals tend to recrystallize with an orientation that is ________ to the direction of greatest stress.
    A. parallel
    B. perpendicular
    C. directed
    D. none of the above
  61. The Phanerozoic era began about ... years ago
    A. 4.5 billion yrs
    B. 2.5 billion years
    C. 540 million yrs
    D. 248 million years
  62. Rocks subjected to intense heat when they are intruded by magma undergo a process called
    A. tectonic metamorphism
    B. searing
    C. contact metamorphism
    D. Thermal modification
  63. Cambrian and Jurassic are examples of
    A. Era
    B. epoch
    C. eon
    D. period
    E. none
  64. Formation of metamorphic rock NEVER involves which of the following?
    A. formation of new minerals from old
    B. increase in density
    C. complete melting of the material from which it formed
    D. change in orientation of mineral from which it formed
    E. change in shape of mineral grains
  1. a A. half-life
  2. b C. one-eighth
  3. c C. 2p, 2n
  4. d A. True
  5. e A. Zeolite
  6. f E. A and B
  7. g C. foliation
  8. h C. complete melting of the material from which it formed
  9. i D. Limestone
  10. j D. foliation
  11. k C. sandstone
  12. l D. Epochs
  13. m C. 540 million yrs
  14. n B. Paleozoic
  15. o C. Crystallization
  16. p C. Cenozoic
  17. q D. Blueschist facies
  18. r D. angular unconformity
  19. s C. eons
  20. t A. mass
  21. u B. equidimensional mineral grains
  22. v B. shields
  23. w D. They are commonly strongly stratified.
  24. x A. Era
  25. y A. Garnet-mica schist
  26. z C. slate
  27. aa C. contact metamorphism
  28. ab B. schistosity
  29. ac B. Granite
  30. ad D. Gneiss
  31. ae B. perpendicular
  32. af D. Quartzite
  33. ag D. all of the above
  34. ah C. marble
  35. ai A. protons
  36. aj B. epoch
  37. ak C. isotopes
  38. al A. chlorite
  39. am C. numerical
  40. an A. a disconformity
  41. ao C. neutron capture
  42. ap A. transitional unconformity
  43. aq D. Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic
  44. ar D. neutrons
  45. as E. none
  46. at D. period
  47. au A. Eons that collectively comprise Precambrian
  48. av D. Precambrian
  49. aw B. Relative
  50. ax D. Heat from a nearby magma body
  51. ay C. limestone - schist
  52. az E. All of the above
  53. ba D. dense
  54. bb D. differential stress
  55. bc D. marble
  56. bd D. gneiss
  57. be D. deep weathering of feldspar-rich rocks
  58. bf D. dominant life-forms
  59. bg E. all of the above
  60. bh D. periods; epochs
  61. bi A. neutron becomes a proton
  62. bj C. 4.5 billion yrs
  63. bk D. original horizontality
  64. bl D. lineation