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50 True/False questions

  1. What is an earthflow? Where does it usually occur and what causes it?flow of soil and regolith containing a large amount of water. Often confined to channels and canyons and also semiarid regions

          

  2. Define and compare P waves and S waves.p waves- primary waves, push pull, travels fast and through everything
    s waves- secondary waves, shake motion, travels only through solids

          

  3. What happens to rock under stress in the upper and lower parts of the crust? ~ SHORT ANSWERTree rings (ring thickness gives info on climate and time), Varves (rhythmic changes in sedimentary environment), Ice layers (thin layers of ice formed by annual snow fall)

          

  4. What are unconformities, angular unconformities, nonconformities, and disconformities?anticline- form by up-folding or arching of sedimentary layers
    syncline- troughs often found in association with anticline
    -They both form in sedimentary rock

          

  5. What is a tsunami? What was the Tsunami of 2004? What happened? What caused it?sliding of a mass of rock or unconsolidated material as a unit along a curved surface. commonly occur because slope has oversteepened and doesnt move very far.

          

  6. Can earthquakes be predicted in the short-term?yes

          

  7. What is creep? Where does it usually occur and what causes it?gradual downhill movement of soil and regolith.

          

  8. 11. What were the eight major effects of the Pleistocene Ice Age? Know what they all are for possible multiple-choice questions and be able to explain three of them (a few sentences or phrases) for one of the short essays.Tree rings (ring thickness gives info on climate and time), Varves (rhythmic changes in sedimentary environment), Ice layers (thin layers of ice formed by annual snow fall)

          

  9. What is the Principle of Horizontality? Why is it important?Layers are parallel to the Earth's surface

          

  10. 1. What is glacier and how does it form? What are the two main zones on a glacier? What happens in each zone? (pp. 599-600) ~ SHORT ANSWERFault - form where brittle deformation leads to fracturing and displacement of the Earth's crust
    Joint - Fractures along which no appreciable displacement has occured

          

  11. What is deformation? What causes rocks to deform?1. Seismology- study of earthquakes
    2. seismograph- an instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.

          

  12. What effects does water have on mass wasting? (Three things)1. can trigger mass wasting
    2. saturation reduces internal resistance of materials
    3. adds weight

          

  13. Compare the meanings of relative (comparative) age/dating and absolute (numerical) age/dating with examples from geology ~ SHORT ANSWERTree rings (ring thickness gives info on climate and time), Varves (rhythmic changes in sedimentary environment), Ice layers (thin layers of ice formed by annual snow fall)

          

  14. What types of plate boundaries usually are associated with earthquakes? Explain each of the main types (i.e. convergent, transform, divergent) with examples ~ SHORT ANSWER1. convergent- two plates come together ex:
    2. divergent- areas where molten materials rise usually along extensive underwater mountain chains known as ridges and rises. The rising material results in the production of new crustal material. Shallow earthquakes occur along these boundaries.
    3. transform- occur where plates slide past one another. The classic example of this type of boundary is the San Andreas Fault

          

  15. What is mass wasting? (Definition - main characteristics) What are the factors that trigger mass wasting? ~ SHORT ANSWERMass wasting- downslope movement of rock, regolith, and soil under the influence of gravity
    1. some triggers are saturation of material with water, oversteepening of slopes, removal of vegetation, and ground vibrations

          

  16. With regard to continental glaciers, what are drift and tillalong the edges of the continental and oceanic plates

          

  17. What is radiometric dating? What is it based on? Why is it important?determination of parent and daughter isotopes may be used to calculate age.

          

  18. What does "half-life" mean?The rate of change of radioactive nuclei

    The time required for one half of the original mass of an isotope to undergo radioactive decay

          

  19. What is angle of repose?unconsolidated materials saturated with water turn into a mobile fluid

          

  20. What are strike-slip faults?Fault with dominant displacement horizontal and parallel to the direction of the fault

          

  21. How can human activity sometimes lead to mass wasting events?1. can trigger mass wasting
    2. saturation reduces internal resistance of materials
    3. adds weight

          

  22. 6. Be familiar with the glacial landforms discussed on pp. 607-617.along the edges of the continental and oceanic plates

          

  23. What is the Law of Superposition? Why is it important?Layers are parallel to the Earth's surface

          

  24. What four factors determine the amount of structural damage from an earthquake? (p. 378)1. intensity
    2. duration of vibrations
    3. Nature of material upon which the structure rests
    4. design of structure

          

  25. What is the San Andreas Fault system? What is happening there?system composed of numerous faults, extending 2000 miles.

          

  26. What is a slump? Where does it usually occur and what causes it?gradual downhill movement of soil and regolith.

          

  27. What is a fault? What is a joint? How are they different?1. Seismology- study of earthquakes
    2. seismograph- an instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.

          

  28. What is a rockslide? Where does it usually occur and what causes it?sliding of a mass of rock or unconsolidated material as a unit along a curved surface. commonly occur because slope has oversteepened and doesnt move very far.

          

  29. Describe what happened in Japan on March 11, 2011. Be familiar with the "Japan's Killer Quake" ~ SHORT ANSWER1. Intensity - a measure of the degree of earthquake shaking at a given locale based on the amount of damage
    2. Magnitude - estimates the amount of energy released at the source of the earthquake

          

  30. What is moment magnitude?unconsolidated materials saturated with water turn into a mobile fluid

          

  31. What are foreshocks and aftershocks?1. Foreshocks- small earthquakes that follow major earthquakes
    2. Aftershocks- adjustments that follow a major earthquake

          

  32. By what three factors are mass wasting processes classified?1. Foreshocks- small earthquakes that follow major earthquakes
    2. Aftershocks- adjustments that follow a major earthquake

          

  33. Define earthquake, earthquake focus (hypocenter), and epicenteryes

          

  34. What is seismology? What is a seismograph?Deformation - the changes in shape or position of a rock body in response to differential stress.

          

  35. What is a debris flow? Where does it usually occur and what causes it?form on hillsides in humid regions during times of heavy precipitation.

          

  36. What are end and ground moraines?compressional and tensional

          

  37. 12. What is solifluction? Where does it usually occur and what causes it?special type of creep that occurs in areas of permafrost. caused when water cannot escape from surface layer

          

  38. According to geologists, about how old is the Earth? What is this estimate based on? Explain how geologists estimate the age of the Earth. ~ SHORT ANSWERscale based on the amplitude of the largest seismic wave.
    accounts for the decrease in wave amplitude with increased distance

          

  39. What are the two main types of glaciers? Describe their main characteristics. Where do we find them, for example?compressional, tensional, and shear

          

  40. Where do most of the earthquakes in the world occur?along the edges of the continental and oceanic plates

          

  41. What are anticlines and synclines? What kind of rock do they form in?Deformation - the changes in shape or position of a rock body in response to differential stress.

          

  42. What are the three types of differential stress?1. Foreshocks- small earthquakes that follow major earthquakes
    2. Aftershocks- adjustments that follow a major earthquake

          

  43. Why is the discovery of radioactive decay important in geology (two reasons)?atoms may change into another element
    half lives

          

  44. How do earthquakes occur? Who discovered the mechanism that explains the causes of earthquakes? What is the process? ~ SHORT ANSWERyes

          

  45. What are the two types of stress?compressional and tensional

          

  46. 5. How do glaciers erode the landscape? What is plucking and what is abrasion?plucking and abrasion
    plucking- loosening and lifting of rock blocks
    abrasion- rocks within the ice acting like sandpaper to smooth and polish the surface below

          

  47. Define and compare intensity and magnitude1. Intensity - a measure of the degree of earthquake shaking at a given locale based on the amount of damage
    2. Magnitude - estimates the amount of energy released at the source of the earthquake

          

  48. What is liquefaction?the steepest angle at which a sloping surface formed of a particular loose material is stable.

          

  49. What are some other methods of getting absolute ages (dates)?Tree rings (ring thickness gives info on climate and time), Varves (rhythmic changes in sedimentary environment), Ice layers (thin layers of ice formed by annual snow fall)

          

  50. What is the Richter scale? What does it measure? What is it used for?scale based on the amplitude of the largest seismic wave.
    accounts for the decrease in wave amplitude with increased distance