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50 Multiple choice questions

  1. 1. Intensity - a measure of the degree of earthquake shaking at a given locale based on the amount of damage
    2. Magnitude - estimates the amount of energy released at the source of the earthquake
  2. unconsolidated materials saturated with water turn into a mobile fluid
  3. 1. Earthquake- the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy
    2. Earthquake focus- released energy radiating in all directions (the source)
    3. epicenter
  4. along the edges of the continental and oceanic plates
  5. the youngest layer is at the top, and the oldest layer is at the bottom
    relative age may be determind
  6. compressional and tensional
  7. upper crust- brittle deformation (stress exceeds the strength of rock causing it to break)
    lower crust- ductile deformation (creates folds where rock bends without breaking)
  8. compressional, tensional, and shear
  9. determination of parent and daughter isotopes may be used to calculate age.
  10. elastic rebound- rocks on both sides of fault are deformed and bend which stores elastic energy causing frictional resistance. Slippage then occurs causing the deformed rock to spring back to its original shape
    discovered by HF Reid
  11. absolute aging- determining absolute time is important to understanding the rate of geologic processes ex) determining age of the earth
  12. Tree rings (ring thickness gives info on climate and time), Varves (rhythmic changes in sedimentary environment), Ice layers (thin layers of ice formed by annual snow fall)
  13. size of the earthquake based on energy released
  14. atoms may change into another element
    half lives
  15. system composed of numerous faults, extending 2000 miles.
  16. ice sheets and alpine or valley glaciers
  17. 1. convergent- two plates come together ex:
    2. divergent- areas where molten materials rise usually along extensive underwater mountain chains known as ridges and rises. The rising material results in the production of new crustal material. Shallow earthquakes occur along these boundaries.
    3. transform- occur where plates slide past one another. The classic example of this type of boundary is the San Andreas Fault
  18. yes
  19. Deformation - the changes in shape or position of a rock body in response to differential stress.
  20. plucking and abrasion
    plucking- loosening and lifting of rock blocks
    abrasion- rocks within the ice acting like sandpaper to smooth and polish the surface below
  21. 4.3 billion years old. Age was measured by the oldest rocks and crystals on the earth.
  22. sliding of a mass of rock or unconsolidated material as a unit along a curved surface. commonly occur because slope has oversteepened and doesnt move very far.
  23. natural body of ice formed by accumulation, compaction, and recrystalization of snow that is thick enough to flow and persists from year to year
  24. 1. Seismology- study of earthquakes
    2. seismograph- an instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.
  25. destructive waves
  26. 1. unconformities- sequence of rock contains gaps, record change in environment that affect deposition
    2. angular unconformities- underlying layers are not parallel to the strata above it
  27. Magnitude 9 earthquake hit Japan, causing a tsunami. Ruptured along a fault zone off the coast
  28. flow of soil and regolith containing a large amount of water. Often confined to channels and canyons and also semiarid regions
  29. blocks of bedrock break loose and slide down a slope. Fast and destructive, occur where the rock strata are inclined
  30. form on hillsides in humid regions during times of heavy precipitation.
  31. Mass wasting- downslope movement of rock, regolith, and soil under the influence of gravity
    1. some triggers are saturation of material with water, oversteepening of slopes, removal of vegetation, and ground vibrations
  32. end- ridge of till that forms at the terminus of a glacier
    ground-gently rolling layer of till deposited as the ice front recedes
  33. 1. type of material involved
    2. the kind of motion displayed
    3. rate of movement
  34. Fault - form where brittle deformation leads to fracturing and displacement of the Earth's crust
    Joint - Fractures along which no appreciable displacement has occured
  35. 1. Sea level change- ice trapped huge quantities of water, topography of continental shelves are evidence
    2. Pluvial lakes- rain fed lakes developed in arid and semiarid regions
    3. Ocean waters cooled- changes in ocean chemistry and altered ocean circulation
  36. The rate of change of radioactive nuclei

    The time required for one half of the original mass of an isotope to undergo radioactive decay
  37. the steepest angle at which a sloping surface formed of a particular loose material is stable.
  38. 1. Foreshocks- small earthquakes that follow major earthquakes
    2. Aftershocks- adjustments that follow a major earthquake
  39. 1. intensity
    2. duration of vibrations
    3. Nature of material upon which the structure rests
    4. design of structure
  40. Layers are parallel to the Earth's surface
  41. drift- all sediments of glacial origin
    till- material that is deposited as glacial ice melts and drops its load of rock fragments
  42. gradual downhill movement of soil and regolith.
  43. Glaciated valleys, aretes and horns, roches moutonnees, fiords, tarns, cirques, hanging valleys
  44. Fault with dominant displacement horizontal and parallel to the direction of the fault
  45. special type of creep that occurs in areas of permafrost. caused when water cannot escape from surface layer
  46. anticline- form by up-folding or arching of sedimentary layers
    syncline- troughs often found in association with anticline
    -They both form in sedimentary rock
  47. scale based on the amplitude of the largest seismic wave.
    accounts for the decrease in wave amplitude with increased distance
  48. 1. can trigger mass wasting
    2. saturation reduces internal resistance of materials
    3. adds weight
  49. p waves- primary waves, push pull, travels fast and through everything
    s waves- secondary waves, shake motion, travels only through solids
  50. 1. creating oversteepened and unstable slopes
    2. forest fires and vegetation removal