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  1. What is mass wasting? (Definition - main characteristics) What are the factors that trigger mass wasting? ~ SHORT ANSWER
  2. How do earthquakes occur? Who discovered the mechanism that explains the causes of earthquakes? What is the process? ~ SHORT ANSWER
  3. What happens to rock under stress in the upper and lower parts of the crust? ~ SHORT ANSWER
  4. 1. What is glacier and how does it form? What are the two main zones on a glacier? What happens in each zone? (pp. 599-600) ~ SHORT ANSWER
  5. What is the Law of Superposition? Why is it important?
  6. What are foreshocks and aftershocks?
  7. With regard to continental glaciers, what are drift and till
  8. What are end and ground moraines?
  9. Define and compare P waves and S waves.
  10. What are unconformities, angular unconformities, nonconformities, and disconformities?
  11. What is moment magnitude?
  12. What four factors determine the amount of structural damage from an earthquake? (p. 378)
  13. What are the two main types of glaciers? Describe their main characteristics. Where do we find them, for example?
  14. What is the Principle of Horizontality? Why is it important?
  15. 6. Be familiar with the glacial landforms discussed on pp. 607-617.
  16. 12. What is solifluction? Where does it usually occur and what causes it?
  17. What is radiometric dating? What is it based on? Why is it important?
  18. Compare the meanings of relative (comparative) age/dating and absolute (numerical) age/dating with examples from geology ~ SHORT ANSWER
  19. Define earthquake, earthquake focus (hypocenter), and epicenter
  20. What are strike-slip faults?
  21. What is the San Andreas Fault system? What is happening there?
  22. What are the two types of stress?
  23. Describe what happened in Japan on March 11, 2011. Be familiar with the "Japan's Killer Quake" ~ SHORT ANSWER
  24. What is angle of repose?
  25. What is an earthflow? Where does it usually occur and what causes it?
  26. 5. How do glaciers erode the landscape? What is plucking and what is abrasion?
  27. What is creep? Where does it usually occur and what causes it?
  28. What is a fault? What is a joint? How are they different?
  29. By what three factors are mass wasting processes classified?
  30. What types of plate boundaries usually are associated with earthquakes? Explain each of the main types (i.e. convergent, transform, divergent) with examples ~ SHORT ANSWER
  31. What is a slump? Where does it usually occur and what causes it?
  32. What is the Richter scale? What does it measure? What is it used for?
  33. What are some other methods of getting absolute ages (dates)?
  34. What are the three types of differential stress?
  35. What are anticlines and synclines? What kind of rock do they form in?
  36. What is a rockslide? Where does it usually occur and what causes it?
  37. What is a tsunami? What was the Tsunami of 2004? What happened? What caused it?
  38. Where do most of the earthquakes in the world occur?
  39. What does "half-life" mean?
  40. According to geologists, about how old is the Earth? What is this estimate based on? Explain how geologists estimate the age of the Earth. ~ SHORT ANSWER
  41. What effects does water have on mass wasting? (Three things)
  42. What is seismology? What is a seismograph?
  43. What is liquefaction?
  44. 11. What were the eight major effects of the Pleistocene Ice Age? Know what they all are for possible multiple-choice questions and be able to explain three of them (a few sentences or phrases) for one of the short essays.
  45. What is deformation? What causes rocks to deform?
  46. Why is the discovery of radioactive decay important in geology (two reasons)?
  47. What is a debris flow? Where does it usually occur and what causes it?
  48. Define and compare intensity and magnitude
  49. Can earthquakes be predicted in the short-term?
  50. How can human activity sometimes lead to mass wasting events?
  1. a flow of soil and regolith containing a large amount of water. Often confined to channels and canyons and also semiarid regions
  2. b Fault with dominant displacement horizontal and parallel to the direction of the fault
  3. c form on hillsides in humid regions during times of heavy precipitation.
  4. d drift- all sediments of glacial origin
    till- material that is deposited as glacial ice melts and drops its load of rock fragments
  5. e end- ridge of till that forms at the terminus of a glacier
    ground-gently rolling layer of till deposited as the ice front recedes
  6. f 1. Foreshocks- small earthquakes that follow major earthquakes
    2. Aftershocks- adjustments that follow a major earthquake
  7. g blocks of bedrock break loose and slide down a slope. Fast and destructive, occur where the rock strata are inclined
  8. h yes
  9. i determination of parent and daughter isotopes may be used to calculate age.
  10. j natural body of ice formed by accumulation, compaction, and recrystalization of snow that is thick enough to flow and persists from year to year
  11. k The rate of change of radioactive nuclei

    The time required for one half of the original mass of an isotope to undergo radioactive decay
  12. l gradual downhill movement of soil and regolith.
  13. m upper crust- brittle deformation (stress exceeds the strength of rock causing it to break)
    lower crust- ductile deformation (creates folds where rock bends without breaking)
  14. n the youngest layer is at the top, and the oldest layer is at the bottom
    relative age may be determind
  15. o 4.3 billion years old. Age was measured by the oldest rocks and crystals on the earth.
  16. p Glaciated valleys, aretes and horns, roches moutonnees, fiords, tarns, cirques, hanging valleys
  17. q Deformation - the changes in shape or position of a rock body in response to differential stress.
  18. r 1. Seismology- study of earthquakes
    2. seismograph- an instrument that measures and records details of earthquakes, such as force and duration.
  19. s 1. Intensity - a measure of the degree of earthquake shaking at a given locale based on the amount of damage
    2. Magnitude - estimates the amount of energy released at the source of the earthquake
  20. t Mass wasting- downslope movement of rock, regolith, and soil under the influence of gravity
    1. some triggers are saturation of material with water, oversteepening of slopes, removal of vegetation, and ground vibrations
  21. u elastic rebound- rocks on both sides of fault are deformed and bend which stores elastic energy causing frictional resistance. Slippage then occurs causing the deformed rock to spring back to its original shape
    discovered by HF Reid
  22. v plucking and abrasion
    plucking- loosening and lifting of rock blocks
    abrasion- rocks within the ice acting like sandpaper to smooth and polish the surface below
  23. w 1. Earthquake- the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy
    2. Earthquake focus- released energy radiating in all directions (the source)
    3. epicenter
  24. x Layers are parallel to the Earth's surface
  25. y Tree rings (ring thickness gives info on climate and time), Varves (rhythmic changes in sedimentary environment), Ice layers (thin layers of ice formed by annual snow fall)
  26. z atoms may change into another element
    half lives
  27. aa 1. type of material involved
    2. the kind of motion displayed
    3. rate of movement
  28. ab along the edges of the continental and oceanic plates
  29. ac compressional, tensional, and shear
  30. ad system composed of numerous faults, extending 2000 miles.
  31. ae 1. creating oversteepened and unstable slopes
    2. forest fires and vegetation removal
  32. af special type of creep that occurs in areas of permafrost. caused when water cannot escape from surface layer
  33. ag sliding of a mass of rock or unconsolidated material as a unit along a curved surface. commonly occur because slope has oversteepened and doesnt move very far.
  34. ah Magnitude 9 earthquake hit Japan, causing a tsunami. Ruptured along a fault zone off the coast
  35. ai destructive waves
  36. aj 1. intensity
    2. duration of vibrations
    3. Nature of material upon which the structure rests
    4. design of structure
  37. ak unconsolidated materials saturated with water turn into a mobile fluid
  38. al 1. can trigger mass wasting
    2. saturation reduces internal resistance of materials
    3. adds weight
  39. am anticline- form by up-folding or arching of sedimentary layers
    syncline- troughs often found in association with anticline
    -They both form in sedimentary rock
  40. an ice sheets and alpine or valley glaciers
  41. ao compressional and tensional
  42. ap size of the earthquake based on energy released
  43. aq scale based on the amplitude of the largest seismic wave.
    accounts for the decrease in wave amplitude with increased distance
  44. ar 1. unconformities- sequence of rock contains gaps, record change in environment that affect deposition
    2. angular unconformities- underlying layers are not parallel to the strata above it
  45. as p waves- primary waves, push pull, travels fast and through everything
    s waves- secondary waves, shake motion, travels only through solids
  46. at 1. convergent- two plates come together ex:
    2. divergent- areas where molten materials rise usually along extensive underwater mountain chains known as ridges and rises. The rising material results in the production of new crustal material. Shallow earthquakes occur along these boundaries.
    3. transform- occur where plates slide past one another. The classic example of this type of boundary is the San Andreas Fault
  47. au Fault - form where brittle deformation leads to fracturing and displacement of the Earth's crust
    Joint - Fractures along which no appreciable displacement has occured
  48. av the steepest angle at which a sloping surface formed of a particular loose material is stable.
  49. aw 1. Sea level change- ice trapped huge quantities of water, topography of continental shelves are evidence
    2. Pluvial lakes- rain fed lakes developed in arid and semiarid regions
    3. Ocean waters cooled- changes in ocean chemistry and altered ocean circulation
  50. ax absolute aging- determining absolute time is important to understanding the rate of geologic processes ex) determining age of the earth