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373 True/False questions

  1. A hot spring that water is known as a ______.fumarole

          

  2. what is an artesian well?granite

          

  3. The mantle is located beneath the Moho.True

          

  4. Which one of the following is true regarding tsunamis?irrigation

          

  5. Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth's lithospheric plates?a stalactite

          

  6. The mass-wasting type characterized by a crescent-shaped scarp face is the ______.due to algae

          

  7. aquifierFrom a point uplift (Mesa, Volcano, etc)

          

  8. Graph Inspectionmaximum load transported

          

  9. Desert and steppe lands cover about what percentage of Earth's land area?the Moho

          

  10. What is the circulation within Earth's outer core responsible for?The generation of Earth's magnetic field

          

  11. "The angle of repose" is a term most closely associated with ________.Talus

          

  12. Stream RejuvenationRivers of water flowing down channels

          

  13. FloodwaysMeandering stream channels cover a small portion
    Typically has escarpment or bluff along sides and channels over flow to flood plains in entire region

          

  14. where are we likely to find hot springs?temperatures in deep mines and oil wells usually rise with increasing depth; so when groundwater circulates at great depths is becomes heated and if it rises to the surface, the water may emerge as a hot spring; 95% of hot springs in US are found in the West bc the source of heat for most hot springs is cooling igneous rocks

          

  15. Sedimentary strata are always formed horizontally.True

          

  16. Drainage Networkin general moves very rapidly through pore spaces of materials in the subsurface

          

  17. The elastic rebound theory for the origin of earthquakes was first proposed by ________ following the ________ earthquake.Reid; 1906, San Francisco

          

  18. TurbulenceStream flow is characteristically turbulent
    -chaotic and erratic
    -abundant mixing
    -swirling oddities
    -high velocity

          

  19. Approximately how often do locked segments of the San Andreas Fault (California) break, resulting in major earthquakes?30 times

          

  20. How is desert pavement formed?Runoff and deflation carry off the silt and clay, leaving coarser particles behind.

          

  21. Several organic minerals are found in nature.Carbonic

          

  22. Wedge-Shaped BankIons from mineral weathering

          

  23. The single most important mechanism of transport for weathered overburden in the subarctic zones is _______.rusting

          

  24. The following is found at the base of Earth's crust:the Moho

          

  25. Which three substances are required to interact to form calcium bicarbonate?calcite

          

  26. The rock debris which accumulates at the base of steep slopes by gravitational actions is called _________.talus

          

  27. Important Geological AgentSediments rapidly dropped near stream source
    -coarsest material found near stream source
    -sediments fine and thing away from source
    Sediments create conical, fan shaped stretches
    Forms at base of a mountain front

          

  28. A swallow hole is most closely associated with _______.sinkholes

          

  29. When does a perched water table occur?whenever there is a localized aquiclude within an aquifer

          

  30. In karst landscape of slight relief, _______ are the most common features.sinkholes

          

  31. what are the factors that determine the hydraulic gradient?measuring difference in elevation between two points on the water table (h1-h2) divided by the distance between them (d); wells are used to determine the heigh of the water

          

  32. _________ involves the peeling of thin layers of stone off a large rock and might happen directly as a result of the removal of an overlying weight from the landscape.exfoliation

          

  33. Permanent (Streams)Controlled by jointed rocks (limestone, fractures)

    Example: San Andreas

          

  34. Drainage Networkswater soaks into the ground bc bedrock, sediment and soil contain countless voids or opening that are similar to a sponge

          

  35. Deep-oceanic trenches are most abundant around the rim of the ________ ocean basin.Pacific

          

  36. Deep ocean trenches are surficial evidence for ________.sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subduction zone

          

  37. Which openings in rocks are associated with calcareous rocks?solution cavities

          

  38. Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5?focus

          

  39. Volcanic are Extrusive rocksTectonic Uplift can alter a course of a major river
    Early Mesozoic, South American drained westward
    Western uplift raised Andes
    - now flows east

          

  40. What rock is a poor aquifer?granite

          

  41. Cut BankStream flow is characteristically turbulent
    -chaotic and erratic
    -abundant mixing
    -swirling oddities
    -high velocity

          

  42. The _______ is NOT a portion of Earth's interior.focus

          

  43. Water is major agent of weathering because of its property that, when it freezes, it decreases in density and.....evaporates

          

  44. Which of the following is an example of a speleothem?a stalactite

          

  45. The earliest Era in the Geologic time scale is _______.Precambrian

          

  46. what is the biggest use of groundwater?irrigation

          

  47. where do you get springs? for example, why dont we have a spring popping up in front of dallas halls?the source of springs is water from the zone of saturation and the ultimate source of this water is precipitaion; whenever the water table intersects Earth's surface, a natural outflow of groundwater results (spring);

          

  48. The slight displacement of human built structures such as fences, posts, and telephone poles is subtle evidence that _____ has occurred.neutral hence most suitable for majority of plants and microorganisms.

          

  49. A ________ forms when stagnant, glacial ice melts after being buried by drift.Melting at the base of the glacier resulting in increased rates of basal slip

          

  50. Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today?Antarctica

          

  51. Abrasion-Sediment grains in flow "sandblast" rocks
    -bedrocks exposed in channels often polished and smooth

    -Gravel surrounding turbulent eddies drills holes in the bedrock
    -bowl shaped depresions - POTHOLES
    -Unusual and intricate sculptes

          

  52. Flash FloodsLowest point a stream can erode
    -ultimate base is sea level
    -can't erode below

    -A lake serves as a local (or temporary) base level

          

  53. The ________ is the point of origination for an earthquake.Melting at the base of the glacier resulting in increased rates of basal slip

          

  54. Sheetwashimpermeable layers that hinder or prevent water movement (ex:clay)

          

  55. Oxbow LakeThe meander that has been cut off from via a cutoff in a straight reach

          

  56. Longitudinal Changes-Changes character with distance
    -In profile, gradient describes a concave-up curve

          

  57. Assume that the central slip face of a barchan dune slopes downhill toward the east. What is the direction of the prevailing wind?Gradient is steep
    discharge is low
    sediments coarse
    channels are straight and rocky

          

  58. ________ might happen directly as the result of the removal of an overlying weight from the landscape.Diastrophism

          

  59. Burrowing animals, earthquakes, and thunder are all significant contributors to soil creep.True

          

  60. Caves are found in most parts of the world where there are thick _____ deposits under the surface.small

          

  61. Ground waterin general moves very rapidly through pore spaces of materials in the subsurface

          

  62. unsaturated zone (vadose)the area above the water table that includes the capillary fringe and zone of soil moisture

          

  63. The ________ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision.northward movement of India into Eurasia

          

  64. Headward ErosionIntense scoring marks entry into the channels
    -rapid erosion lengthening the channel further upslope

          

  65. Raging WatersArray of linked channels
    -the networks change overtime

          

  66. Just beneath the surface of Yellowstone National PArk is a large ______.magma chamber

          

  67. ________ was struck by three major earthquakes during the winter and spring months of the years 1811-1812.New Madrid, Missouri

          

  68. Bed LoadLarger particles roll, slide, and bounce along

          

  69. New oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at ________.sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subduction zone

          

  70. Floodrisk Analysisregions likely to be flooded
    -prevent from building
    -abandon buildings in the areas

          

  71. What holds most sedimentary rocks together?Cementing agents that precipitate out of water

          

  72. A ________ is formed by abrasion of rocks by windblown sand.barchan

          

  73. Which of the following is often associated with a cirque basin in high, mountainous terrain?limestone

          

  74. why is it said that groundwater is the largest store of freshwater on earth that is "readily available to people"?calcium and magnesium ions

          

  75. Chemical weathering weakens the chemical makeup of rock minerals.True

          

  76. The steepest angle that can be assumed by loose fragments on a slope without downslope movement is the angle of repose.Richter

          

  77. clay is a facilitator for mass wasting because clay _______.absorbs water

          

  78. Igneous rocks apparently make up the bulk of Earth's entire crust.the Moho

          

  79. Which of the following is not a "limy" rock?granite

          

  80. Which of the following form of mass wasting is relatively fast and wet compared to the others?mudflow

          

  81. RunoffUplands that separate drainage basins

          

  82. Streams Guide Sediment with TransportAs a mountain uplifts, the stream downcuts just as fast maintaining its original course, cutting across the range.

          

  83. Drainage EvolutionLandscapes evolve over time
    Stream flow causes most changes
    EX: -Uplift sets new base level
    -Stream cuts former surface
    -Valleys widen, hills erode
    -Landscape divided to base level

          

  84. how does groundwater contamination happen, especially where there is heavy pumping of well water for drinking?Precambrian

          

  85. Most dry lands lie between ________ degrees north and south of the equator.True

          

  86. Three Load Typeswater soaks into the ground bc bedrock, sediment and soil contain countless voids or opening that are similar to a sponge

          

  87. Which one of the following is the one best measure of the wetness or dryness of a region?Alluvial fans typically rim desert valleys; playas form in the lowest, interior parts of the valleys.

          

  88. The ________ is used to record ground shaking and the earthquake-magnitude scale was invented by ________.Gold

          

  89. Overuse of WaterRivers of water flowing down channels

          

  90. The most common oxidation effect in the lithosphere is _______.surface location directly above the point where the fault slip initiates

          

  91. what conditions have to be met to have an artesian well?water table is the upper limit of the zone of saturation and is a very significant feature of the groundwater system; it is important in predicting the productivity of wells, explaining the changes in the flow of springs and streams, and accounting for fluctuations in the levels of lakes

          

  92. The slowest and least perceptible form of mass wasting is ______.creep

          

  93. The Mercalli Scale is a scale from ________.-Raising base level results in an increase in deposition
    -Lowering base level accelerates erosion

    -A ledge of resistant rock may define local base level
    -Erosive forces act to slowly remove the resistant layers
    -Act to restore longitudinal profile

          

  94. Rill ChannelsSheetwash erosion creates these
    The rills coalsece, deepen and downcut into CHANNELS

          

  95. Which process occurs where a glacier enters the sea?well sorted sandstone

          

  96. Case History: Mississipii and Missouri Rivers1993- jet stream high altitude winder current drifted southward
    -Trapped moist, humid air from Gulf.
    -Air rose and cooled releasing torrents of rain (years worth)
    -Entered two rivers, flooded
    -50 dead, 250,000 no drinking water, houses covered silt, 55,000 homes destroyed

          

  97. Ephemeral (Streams)When stream enters standing water
    -current slows and loses competence, dropping out sediment
    -Forms a number of distributaries

          

  98. Water flowing into sinkholes frequently disappears into ______.swallow holes

          

  99. A very long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a ________.hydrolysis.

          

  100. New OrleansStream runoff also causes problems
    -flooding destroys lives and properties

          

  101. Marble is metamorphosed ________.limestone

          

  102. In general, the slow cooling of molten rock leads to formation of large crystals.True

          

  103. Joints can be distinguished from faults in thatthere is no movement along joints

          

  104. ________ refers to the tendency for a foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and fail mechanically during earthquake shaking.northward movement of India into Eurasia

          

  105. DischargeAmount of water flowing in a channel
    -volume passing a point per unit of time
    -cubic feet per second
    -cubic meters per second
    -Given by a cross-sectional area times flowing velocity
    -varies seasonally due to precipitation and runoff

    Example: Niagara Falls (200,000 ft3/sec)
    Discharge = Q x A

          

  106. what type of bedrock is associated with karst topographylimestone

          

  107. Low Dischargelarge clasts are stranded

          

  108. Chemical weathering is at its peak in high northern latitudes.False

          

  109. When water freezes, it decreases in density and expands in volume.True

          

  110. Cavern openings to the surface are usually _____.small

          

  111. Pure water is an excellent solventFalse

          

  112. A ________ is an intermittent stream channel in the dry land areas of the western United States.wash

          

  113. Suspended LoadLarger particles roll, slide, and bounce along

          

  114. Near the HEAD WATER source of the streamGradient is steep
    discharge is low
    sediments coarse
    channels are straight and rocky

          

  115. Which one of the following statements concerning foci and epicenters is correct?hanging valley and truncated spur

          

  116. Which one of the following statements is correct?Alluvial fans typically rim desert valleys; playas form in the lowest, interior parts of the valleys.

          

  117. Which of the following is NOT one of the principal categories of rock-forming minerals?Travertine

          

  118. Deposition of glacial rock flour from blowing winds is responsible for ________.Pangaea

          

  119. What are Artesian ground-water systems characterized by?rise of water above the level of a confined aquifer if a well is drilled into the aquifer

          

  120. Capacity-Sediment grains in flow "sandblast" rocks
    -bedrocks exposed in channels often polished and smooth

    -Gravel surrounding turbulent eddies drills holes in the bedrock
    -bowl shaped depresions - POTHOLES
    -Unusual and intricate sculptes

          

  121. _________ is a term which refers to solution landscapes and literally means "barren land"?ventifact

          

  122. Biological weathering is relatively minor; it involves the effects that burrowing animals, plant root penetration, and organic acids have on the other two weathering processes.True

          

  123. Mechanical weathering processes include frost wedging, salt wedging, and temperature changes in rock.calcite

          

  124. ProcessesEvaporation
    Transportation
    Precipitation
    Infiltration
    RUNOFF

          

  125. Earth has a heavy, solid inner core surrounded by three concentric shells-outer core, mantle, and crust- of various densities and compositions.True

          

  126. The epicenter of an earthquake is the ________.Precambrian

          

  127. Like faults, a ________ is a separation in a rock body.true

          

  128. saltwater contaminationa non renewable resource spot; has low rainfall, high evaporation which means little recharge: decline in texas with over 150 ft. since agricultural development

          

  129. Erosional Processesspeleothems that form on the floor of a cavern and reach upward toward the ceiling water galls from the ceiling and splatters over the surface

          

  130. Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years?Alluvial fans typically rim desert valleys; playas form in the lowest, interior parts of the valleys.

          

  131. which sediment would you expect to have the greatest permeability: clay or sand?Travertine

          

  132. ________ is a dark, fine-grained extrusive rock.basalt

          

  133. There are a several mass wasting processes, but they all transfer weathered materials down slopes under the influence of gravity.consolidation of the ground material by rapid ground water depletion

          

  134. Erosion MaximizationWhen streams cut down into landscape that was originally near the stream's base level

          

  135. geysersintermittent hot springs or fountains in which columns of water are ejected with great force at various intervals

          

  136. The former, late Paleozoic super continent is known as ________.Pangaea

          

  137. _______ are typically found at the intersections of joints.basalt

          

  138. Which one of the following will effectively limit further deflation in a given area?desert pavement

          

  139. The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is ________.a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate

          

  140. The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegener could not ________.identify a mechanism capable of moving continents

          

  141. Which of the following is a MASSIVE accumulation of calcium carbonate?Travertine

          

  142. stalactitesTurning some rivers into deadly cesspools
    Raw sewage and drainage from urban areas
    -Fertilizers, industrial sites, animal waste

          

  143. Forming StreamsDevestate people and property
    During a flood
    -flow exceeds volume of the channel
    -Velocity (capacity and competence) increase
    -Water leaves channel and immerses adjacent land
    -Moving water and debris scour flood plains
    -Water slows away from the river

          

  144. The term "exfoliation dome" is best applied to _______.Yosemite National Park.

          

  145. Straight Channelsspeleothems that form on the floor of a cavern and reach upward toward the ceiling water galls from the ceiling and splatters over the surface

          

  146. DeltasUplands that separate drainage basins

          

  147. stalagmitesspeleothems that form on the floor of a cavern and reach upward toward the ceiling water galls from the ceiling and splatters over the surface

          

  148. What are stalagmites and stalagtites are made up of?calcite

          

  149. Which of the following best describes the climatic factors that cause low latitude deserts like the Sahara in Africa?shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate

          

  150. Deposition of dissolved minerals in caverns leaves deposits such as the icicle like _____.sinkholes

          

  151. what are cave pillars made of?depositional features created by the seemingly endless dripping of water over great spans of time; the calcium carbonate that is left behind produces the limestone we call travertine

          

  152. Molten magma cools to form igneous rocksin some regions, groundwater has been and continues to be treated as this which means the water available to recharge the aquifier falls significantly short of the amount being withdrawn

          

  153. ________ is the best explanation for a glacial surge.basalt

          

  154. Energy is stored in rocks adjacent to the site of a future earthquake as ________.elastic strain

          

  155. Calculated Probabilitymaximum load transported

          

  156. Hydrologic CycleBranching "treelike" pattern due to a uniform material. Formed on flat lying land

          

  157. zone of saturation (phreatic zone)where water that is not held as soil moisture percolates downward until it reaches a zone where all of the open spaces in sediment and rock are completely filled with water

          

  158. Superposed StreamsStreams carve channels into the flat strata; when they eventually erode down through the unconformity and start to downcut into the folded strate, they maintain their earlier course, ignoring the structure of the folded strata
    -pre-existing geometry has been laid down on the rock structure

          

  159. The three general weathering processes are interrelated and are influenced to varying degrees by the climate.True

          

  160. Valleys and CannonsStratsgraphic variations often yield a stair step profile
    -Strong rocks yield vertical cliffs
    -Weak rock produce sloped walls
    -Geologic processes stack strong and wear rocks
    -Valleys stowe sediment when base level is reached
    -Renewed incision creates stream terraces
    -terraces mark former flood plains

    V-Shaped Valley-

          

  161. what are subsurface and surface structures associated with karst topography?-sinkholes or sinks- irregular terrain punctuated with many depressions
    -lack of surface drainage (streams)- following rainfall, the runoff is quickly funneled below ground through sinks and flows through caverns until it reaches the water table but this is where streams do not exist at the surface and their paths are usually short
    -irregular terrain
    -carbonate, sulfate, or salt beds at/near ground surface
    -characterized by solution valleys, disappearing streams and sinkholes

          

  162. A fiord is ________.a stream valley, deepened by glacial erosion, that floods as sea level rises

          

  163. When velocity of flow decreases-Competence is reduced and sediment drops out
    -Sediment grain sizes sorted by water
    -sands removed from gravel, mud from both
    -Gravel settles in channels
    -Sands drop out near channel environments
    -silts and clays drape flood plains away from
    channel

          

  164. does groundwater move form place to place?...

          

  165. Which of the following glacial features would typically be found in close proximity?Travertine

          

  166. Gravity is the main force impelling movement in all of the following except ______.Solifluction

          

  167. A slop collapse with a backward rotation is a _______.slump

          

  168. In hydrothermal situations, superheating of water is possible because of the presence of _______.high pressure

          

  169. During a typical sandstorm, saltating sand grains reach a maximum height of ________ above the land surface.calcium carbonate

          

  170. Base LevelLowest point a stream can erode
    -ultimate base is sea level
    -can't erode below

    -A lake serves as a local (or temporary) base level

          

  171. perched water tablea type of spring formation where an aquitard is situated above the main water table, as water percolated downward a portion of it is intercepted by the aquitard, creating a localized zone of saturation and a perched water table

          

  172. Stream piracyStream Capture
    -A situation in which headward erosion causes one stream to intersect the coarse of another stream

          

  173. The ________ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy released. It does not directly measure the extent of building damage.Sinkholes

          

  174. Loess deposits in the central United States ________.originated as rock flour in Pleistocene glacial streams and rivers

          

  175. wellthe most common method for removing groundwater; a hold bored into the zone of saturation; serve as small reservoirs into which groundwater migrates and from which it can be pumped to the surface; MUST penetrate below the water table

          

  176. Niagara Falls...

          

  177. what are 3 problems that arise from heavy pumping of well water in a region with a slow recharge rate (not enough rainfall to replenish the groundwater)?centimeters or may be one or two meters per day

          

  178. Topography is a synonym for geomorphology.False

          

  179. Sources of Earth's WaterOceans - 97.2 %

    Other- 2.8 %
    -Glaciers - 2.15%
    -Ground Water- .62%
    -Freshwater Lakes- .009%
    -Saline Lake/Inland Seas- .008%
    -Stream Channels- .0001%
    -Atmosphere-.001%

          

  180. FloodplainMeandering stream channels cover a small portion
    Typically has escarpment or bluff along sides and channels over flow to flood plains in entire region

          

  181. High Dischargelarge clasts are stranded

          

  182. Living with FloodsStream flow begins as water is added to the surface
    -Melted snow adds water
    -snow and rain add water
    -swamps and puddles collect water on flat land

          

  183. Approximately how long ago did the last of the great North American ice sheets melt?15,000 yrs

          

  184. What type of moraine would be most useful for tracing diamond-bearing kimberlite fragments directly to their bedrock source area?True

          

  185. What is required for the development of geysers?that the ground water partly be heated at a temperature above boiling and partly with a cap of a layer of cold water within a reservoir that offers limited convective mixing of the water

          

  186. Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sink into the mantle at ________.subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries

          

  187. A slump is a downslope movement with a ________.I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake

          

  188. Dissolved Loadmineral matter dissolves in water

          

  189. Stalactites and stalagmitesStratsgraphic variations often yield a stair step profile
    -Strong rocks yield vertical cliffs
    -Weak rock produce sloped walls
    -Geologic processes stack strong and wear rocks
    -Valleys stowe sediment when base level is reached
    -Renewed incision creates stream terraces
    -terraces mark former flood plains

    V-Shaped Valley-

          

  190. DistributariesFan of smaller streams

          

  191. The thickest of Earth's interior layers is the _______.mantle

          

  192. The peeling of thin layers of stone off a large rock is ________.calcite

          

  193. SubsidenceAmount of water flowing in a channel
    -volume passing a point per unit of time
    -cubic feet per second
    -cubic meters per second
    -Given by a cross-sectional area times flowing velocity
    -varies seasonally due to precipitation and runoff

    Example: Niagara Falls (200,000 ft3/sec)
    Discharge = Q x A

          

  194. hydraulic gradientvelocity of groundwater flow is proportional to the slope of the water table- the steeper the slope, the faster the water moves (bc the steeper the slope, the greater the pressure difference b/t 2 points): made by Henri Darcy (Darcy's Law)

          

  195. A rock is defined as a mixture of elements.Drinking, Transport, Waste disposal, recreation, irrigation

          

  196. All major geyser basins are similar in that they are covered with ______.mineral deposits

          

  197. Pull-apart, rift zones are generally associated with ________.a divergent plate boundary

          

  198. What does the permeability of a rock system NOT depend on?thickness of the rock system

          

  199. Causes of Turbulence...

          

  200. The ________ of the geologic time scale represents the time of the most recent "Ice Age."focus

          

  201. The largest sinkholes are in ________ regions.tropical

          

  202. _________ is the most obvious result of weathering.Melting at the base of the glacier resulting in increased rates of basal slip

          

  203. What is isostasy?Lake Erie drops 55 m flowing toward Lake Ontario
    -Dolostone rock is resistant, underlying shale erodes
    -Blocks unsupported dolostone collapse and fall
    -Falls continuously erode south to lake erie
    -Erosion shows deglaciation has formed Niagara Gorge
    -Diversion of falls reveals huge blocks of rock
    -Rate of waterfall retreat- present .5 m/yr
    -Erie will drain when falls reach it

          

  204. How are sand grains transported by the wind?Runoff and deflation carry off the silt and clay, leaving coarser particles behind.

          

  205. Ice Age Megafloods11 thousand years ago, ice dams failed
    -Glacial Lake Missoula
    -Scarred eastern Washington
    -Created Channeled Scablands of Washington
    -barren craggy, stripped rock

          

  206. ________ have rainfall amounts and soil moisture contents between those of true deserts and humid lands.ventifact

          

  207. why is it important to know the hydraulic gradient for groundwater in an area where one might want to build a home and tap into an aquifier to supply drinking water?...

          

  208. In what type of region do caves form?one where the rocks are mostly limestone

          

  209. All of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for ________.changes in the Moon's orbit due to shifting plates

          

  210. Base level changes cause stream...Stratsgraphic variations often yield a stair step profile
    -Strong rocks yield vertical cliffs
    -Weak rock produce sloped walls
    -Geologic processes stack strong and wear rocks
    -Valleys stowe sediment when base level is reached
    -Renewed incision creates stream terraces
    -terraces mark former flood plains

    V-Shaped Valley-

          

  211. Annual Probabilitymaximum load transported

          

  212. Breaking and LiftingForce of water can...
    -break chunks of rock off the channel
    -lift rocks off the channel bottom

          

  213. What type of moraine is formed by the merging of two lateral moraines at a junction of two valley glaciers?medial

          

  214. Crucial for HumansMaximum velocity travels the outside curve
    -outside curve is preferentially scoured and deepened
    -Deepest part of the channels is the THALWEG
    -flow around curve follows a spiral path

          

  215. The largest lateral, ground displacement is produced by ________.Pangaea

          

  216. Abrasion and plucking generally involve what part of a glacier?well sorted sandstone

          

  217. Any downward movement of broken rocks owing to gravity is called mass wasting.True

          

  218. If an excessive pumping of ground water in a coastal area lowers the water table at a locality by 0.5 meter, what will the contact btw. the fresh ground water and the salty ground water in the locality do?when ice is excluded and just liquid water is considered, more than 94% of all freshwater is groundwater

          

  219. non renewable resourceOften form geometric patterns
    -Reflect underlying geology
    Several common patterns

          

  220. Scale differences in landform studies are complex and of significance.True

          

  221. A weathering type associated with curved and concentric sets of joints break away in successive layers is called ______.one where the rocks are mostly limestone

          

  222. aquitardimpermeable layers that hinder or prevent water movement (ex:clay)

          

  223. Recurrence IntervalTectonic Uplift can alter a course of a major river
    Early Mesozoic, South American drained westward
    Western uplift raised Andes
    - now flows east

          

  224. Deep-focus earthquakes, those between 300 and 700 kilometers below the surface, occur only in association with ________.mid-ocean ridges

          

  225. What caused the leaning of the Pisa Tower in Italy?consolidation of the ground material by rapid ground water depletion

          

  226. When hot water is ejected from a geyser, that flow is called an ________.calcium carbonate

          

  227. Alluvial FansSediments rapidly dropped near stream source
    -coarsest material found near stream source
    -sediments fine and thing away from source
    Sediments create conical, fan shaped stretches
    Forms at base of a mountain front

          

  228. drawdownintermittent hot springs or fountains in which columns of water are ejected with great force at various intervals

          

  229. Linear, magnetic patterns associated with mid-ocean ridges are configured as ________.normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge

          

  230. Which one of the following most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate

          

  231. ______ must take place FIRST during the denudation of a landscape.Weathering

          

  232. When subjected to metamorphism, limestone usually becomes ________.marble

          

  233. in a given volume of sediment, what texture would hold more water in an unsaturated state, clay or sand? why?Biggest particles typify steep gradients in head waters
    Fine particles typify gentler gradients near mouth

          

  234. The most widely distributed intrusive rock is granite.True

          

  235. where do springs form?when an aquitard blocks the downward movement of groundwater and forces it to move laterally; a spring results where the permeable bed outcrops

          

  236. Competencewhen the ground sinks and water is pumped faster than natural recharge processes ex: San Joaquin Valley of California

          

  237. Rainshadow deserts are common in ________.calcium carbonate

          

  238. The process of hydrolysis involves ________.the chemical union of water with another substance to yield to a new compound that is weaker than the original rock or mineral.

          

  239. Felsic igneous rocks contain large portions of ______ while mafic igneous rocks contain large portions of ________.Light colored silicate minerals; dark-colored silicate minerals.

          

  240. UrbanizationCities cover large areas with impermeable concrete
    -Stream water runoff from cities destructive
    -shorter lag time between rainfall and flood flow
    -large discharges for shorter duratiosn
    -Water does not go in ground but floods

          

  241. Darcy's lawThe meander that has been cut off from via a cutoff in a straight reach

          

  242. Limestone is composed primarily of ________.the dry valleys of eastern California and Nevada

          

  243. What does hard water contain large amounts of?Gradient is steep
    discharge is low
    sediments coarse
    channels are straight and rocky

          

  244. WaterfallsStreams cascade or free fall
    Energy causes a PLUNGE POOL at base
    Erosion initiates collapse of overlying rocks
    -temporary base levels

          

  245. Which of the following foundation materials is most stable during earthquake shaking?Alluvial fans typically rim desert valleys; playas form in the lowest, interior parts of the valleys.

          

  246. Underground water is a weak ______ acid.in general moves very rapidly through pore spaces of materials in the subsurface

          

  247. The main downslope movement of subarctic and arctic landscape is ______.backwards rotation.

          

  248. Sedimentary deposits built into relatively regular layers are known as ______.strata

          

  249. Ogallala Aquifiera non renewable resource spot; has low rainfall, high evaporation which means little recharge: decline in texas with over 150 ft. since agricultural development

          

  250. In rock, _______ is an end product of common solution reactions.Fragmentation of bedrock

          

  251. The slopes of these features have angles of repose of 20 to 30?the chemical union of water with another substance to yield to a new compound that is weaker than the original rock or mineral.

          

  252. A mudflow including numerous larger blocks of material is a(n) _______.debris flow

          

  253. AlluviumFluvial sediments are called this
    -Channels are decorated with mud-channel bars
    -sands build up to t he point bars inside meander beds
    -muds deposit from channel during floods
    -streams builds a sediment delta upon entering fan

          

  254. RapidsAre turbulent water with rough surface
    -Reflect geologic control
    -Flow over bed rock steps
    -Over large clasts
    -prompt narrowing of a channel
    -sudden increase in gradient

          

  255. Water Along the EdgesDissolved Load-
    Suspended Load-
    Bed load-

          

  256. What is the rate of flow of shallow ground water?centimeters or may be one or two meters per day

          

  257. Drainage ReversalTectonic Uplift can alter a course of a major river
    Early Mesozoic, South American drained westward
    Western uplift raised Andes
    - now flows east

          

  258. Lithification involves compaction and cementationRunoff and deflation carry off the silt and clay, leaving coarser particles behind.

          

  259. Openings in rocks (particularly joints) allow weathering to take place deep below the surface.hanging valley

          

  260. Meandering StreamsStream flow begins as water is added to the surface
    -Melted snow adds water
    -snow and rain add water
    -swamps and puddles collect water on flat land

          

  261. Why was the Marina District, San Francisco, heavily damaged in the 1906 and 1989 quakes?Liquefaction and foundation failures were common.

          

  262. ________ is a widely accepted explanation for the mechanism that generates earthquakes.Reid's elastic rebound theory

          

  263. ________ most effectively outline the edges of the lithospheric plates.Lines of earthquake epicenters

          

  264. How do icebergs in the North Atlantic Ocean originate?by calving of large piedmont glaciers in Greenland

          

  265. The chemical union of water with another substance is called _________.hydrolysis.

          

  266. Inselbergs are ________.-Not flow all year
    -Above the water table
    -Dry climates
    -low rainfall
    -high evaporation
    -flow mostly during rare flash floods

          

  267. Dam ConstructionResevoirs make irrigation and hydroelectric power
    Recreation areas

    Alter ecosystems, barriers to fish, decreased nutrients downstream, removing delta sediment source

          

  268. ________ is an "Internal" process?Flood control is expensive and sometimes trivial
    -Dams on tributaries hold back water from trunk stream
    -Fake levees and flood walls increase channel volume

          

  269. When magma cools rapidly, it results in ________.a stream valley, deepened by glacial erosion, that floods as sea level rises

          

  270. subsidencewhen the ground sinks and water is pumped faster than natural recharge processes ex: San Joaquin Valley of California

          

  271. Deep-focus earthquakes are associated with ________ plate boundaries.solution cavities

          

  272. Scoursrunning water picks up sediment and moves it

          

  273. Water table near a large pumping well..any situation in which groundwater under pressure rises above the level of the aquifier

          

  274. When a stalactite meets a stalagmite the result is a _______.pillar

          

  275. A soil pH measuring 7 on the standard pH scale is considered:neutral hence most suitable for majority of plants and microorganisms.

          

  276. A ________ is a crescent-shaped dune whose tips point downwind.barchan

          

  277. OvertimeOvertime, the nearby channels merge into a large single TRUNK STEAM.

          

  278. Sandstone is the most common metamorphic rock.because fresh water is less dense than saltwater, it floats on the saltwater and forms a large lens-shaped body; the depth of the fresh water below sea level is about 40x greater than the elevation of the water above sea level
    *so when excessive pumping lowers the water table by a certain amount, the bottom of the freshwater zone will rise by 40x that amount ; therefore if groundwater withdrawal continues to exceed recharge, there will come a time when the elevation of the saltwater will be sufficiently high to be drawn into wells, thus contamination the freshwater supply

          

  279. The volcanoes and deep valleys of east Africa are related to a ________.sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subduction zone

          

  280. A ________ cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers.U

          

  281. ________ are erosional features produced by valley/alpine glaciers.Cirques

          

  282. Drainage in karst areas is often beneath the surface.Gradient is steep
    discharge is low
    sediments coarse
    channels are straight and rocky

          

  283. DividesUplands that separate drainage basins

          

  284. Which of the following is not very resistant to solution in water?sodium

          

  285. MonsoonsTropical rains on the Indian Subcontinent
    -Large rains and severe flooding
    -Many live in floodplain and delta plains
    -1990, Bangladesh...100,000 dead

          

  286. ______ refers to the altitudinal difference between the highest and lowest points in an areaconsolidation of the ground material by rapid ground water depletion

          

  287. nonfowing artesian wellwhen the pressure surface at a certain location is below ground level

          

  288. Thalweg-Sediment grains in flow "sandblast" rocks
    -bedrocks exposed in channels often polished and smooth

    -Gravel surrounding turbulent eddies drills holes in the bedrock
    -bowl shaped depresions - POTHOLES
    -Unusual and intricate sculptes

          

  289. Travertine and tufa are both composed of _________.calcium carbonate

          

  290. Igneous rocks are directly derived from the deformation of metamorphic rocks.amplitude of the seismic waves

          

  291. The single most important weathering agent isFalse

          

  292. Metamorphic rocks must be exposed to sunlight for cementation.False

          

  293. What is Karst topography characterized by?granite

          

  294. Foliation refers to this characteristic of metamorphosed rocks:calcium and magnesium ions

          

  295. cone of depressionresult from a drawdown and forms a depression in the water table, roughly conical shape

          

  296. The ________ is directly related to the Richter earthquake-magnitude rating.amplitude of the seismic waves

          

  297. ___________ is an example of a native element.False

          

  298. VelocityNot uniform in all areas of channels
    Friction shows water along the edges creates greater friction

          

  299. Which of the following is the specific name given to the study of the characteristics of rocks?tarn lake

          

  300. The initial formation of the Earth involved the cooling and solidification of ______.sinkholes

          

  301. A ________ is an erosional feature specifically produced by alpine glaciation.U-shaped valley

          

  302. ProblemsEvaporation
    Transportation
    Precipitation
    Infiltration
    RUNOFF

          

  303. A(n) ________ is similar in appearance to a sinkhole of a karst area.bicarbonate

          

  304. Large _____ extend for considerable distances and depths through rock. Below the surface, there is minimal separation between the blocks on either side.barchan

          

  305. The brilliant colors around hot springs and geysers is _________.mantle

          

  306. What are the smaller magnitude quakes that follow a major earthquake?rise of water above the level of a confined aquifer if a well is drilled into the aquifer

          

  307. what is the water table?Average number of years between successive floods

          

  308. Uniformitarianism is the study of the interior of the Earth.False

          

  309. pore spaceswater soaks into the ground bc bedrock, sediment and soil contain countless voids or opening that are similar to a sponge

          

  310. flowing artesian wellMeandering stream channels cover a small portion
    Typically has escarpment or bluff along sides and channels over flow to flood plains in entire region

          

  311. Which of the following characteristics would suggest geologically recent, fault uplift of a desert mountain range?flat, upland surfaces, steep slopes and small alluvial fans

          

  312. The general term signifying the overall lowering of the rock material on the Earth's crust is ________.consolidation of the ground material by rapid ground water depletion

          

  313. Weathering loosens surface and near-surface material in bedrock and makes it prone to mass wasting and erosion.kettle

          

  314. what holds water around sedimentary particles?depositional features created by the seemingly endless dripping of water over great spans of time; the calcium carbonate that is left behind produces the limestone we call travertine

          

  315. The largest and most important mineral family consists of the _______.silicates

          

  316. The totality of minerals ejected from a volcano including liquid material, ashes and dust is termed:pyroclastic material

          

  317. A transform plate boundary is characterized by ________.Pangaea

          

  318. PollutionTurning some rivers into deadly cesspools
    Raw sewage and drainage from urban areas
    -Fertilizers, industrial sites, animal waste

          

  319. Which of the following paleoclimatic evidence supports the idea of the late Paleozoic super continent in the Southern Hemisphere?shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate

          

  320. RectangularControlled by jointed rocks (limestone, fractures)

    Example: San Andreas

          

  321. Stream flowRivers of water flowing down channels

          

  322. Counterpart of marble is limestoneresult from a drawdown and forms a depression in the water table, roughly conical shape

          

  323. ________ is one of the two major flow mechanisms in a glacier.hanging valley

          

  324. The location of features, such as cliffs and valleys might be strongly influenced by the position of ______.master joints

          

  325. TrellisAlternating resistant and weak rocks

          

  326. Drainage DividesAre turbulent water with rough surface
    -Reflect geologic control
    -Flow over bed rock steps
    -Over large clasts
    -prompt narrowing of a channel
    -sudden increase in gradient

          

  327. porosityWater in motion over the land surface

          

  328. Living with FloodsDevestate people and property
    During a flood
    -flow exceeds volume of the channel
    -Velocity (capacity and competence) increase
    -Water leaves channel and immerses adjacent land
    -Moving water and debris scour flood plains
    -Water slows away from the river

          

  329. Fragmented mineral material is called sediment.True

          

  330. Salt wedging is a form of physical weathering especially prevalent in the humid tropics.True

          

  331. how can you find out where a water table is?its elevation can be mapped and studied in detail where wells are numerous bc the water level in wells coincides w the water table

          

  332. P waves ________.water soaks into the ground bc bedrock, sediment and soil contain countless voids or opening that are similar to a sponge

          

  333. hydraulic conductivitymineral matter dissolves in water

          

  334. Frost shattering is also called frost ______.wedging

          

  335. DendriticBranching "treelike" pattern due to a uniform material. Formed on flat lying land

          

  336. Drainage BasinsLand areas that drain into a specific trunk stream
    -Also known as CATCHMENTS or WATERSHEDS
    -

          

  337. A slope collapse with a backward rotation, often characterized by a crescent-shaped scarp face is a _____.slump

          

  338. Capacity and Competencedetermines the chance of occurence

          

  339. what determines groundwater movement and how fast?measured directly using various dyes and carbon-14

          

  340. Earth's crust consists of a variety of minerals that form many kinds of rocks.True

          

  341. The process of ______, involves the lowering of continental surfaces and is accomplished by a combination of three processes: weathering, mass wasting, and erosion.focus

          

  342. Braided Streamin general moves very rapidly through pore spaces of materials in the subsurface

          

  343. Which rock would make the best aquifer?the zone of aeration from the underlying zone of saturation

          

  344. The primary way in which underground water shapes topography is through _______.chemical action

          

  345. permeabilitya material's ability to transmit a fluid

          

  346. Dissolutionmineral matter dissolves in water

          

  347. Geomorphologists focus on understanding the internal and external processes that affect the formation of landforms.originated as rock flour in Pleistocene glacial streams and rivers

          

  348. By far, the world's largest concentration of hydrothermal features occurs in ______.Wyoming.

          

  349. which sediment would you expect to have the greatest porosity?: limestone, poorly sorted alluvim or clay?clay

          

  350. The water table separates?Streams cascade or free fall
    Energy causes a PLUNGE POOL at base
    Erosion initiates collapse of overlying rocks
    -temporary base levels

          

  351. Foliation occurs when rock composed of a single material is subjected to heat and pressure.False

          

  352. Sedimentary rocks are the most common rock type found within the Earth's entire crust.False

          

  353. Water is a major agent of weathering because of its property that, when it freezes, it decreases in density and _______.expands in volume.

          

  354. hot springsby definition, the water in hot springs is 6-9 degrees Celsius; warmer than the mean annual air temperature for the localities where they occur

          

  355. Curved ChannelsControlled by jointed rocks (limestone, fractures)

    Example: San Andreas

          

  356. karst topographylandscapes that are shaped by dissolution (dissolving power of groundwater)

          

  357. A(n) ________ is likely to host a waterfall or steep rapids today.True

          

  358. The rapid appearance of new sinkholes in Florida can be explained by .....exfoliation

          

  359. Oxidation in rocks is often intiated by oxygen dissolved in water.sodium

          

  360. The doctrine of ______ holds that the processes that are shaping the contemporary landscape are the same processes that formed topography of the past and are the same processes that will shape topography of the future.focus

          

  361. Sediment LoadLarger particles roll, slide, and bounce along

          

  362. Like limestone, _____ is highly susceptible to subsurface erosion.Gold

          

  363. The initial formation of Earth involved the solidification and cooling of ______.magma

          

  364. Toward the Mouth...Gradient Flattens
    Higher Discharges
    Smaller grains typical
    Channels describe broad meander belts

          

  365. _____ is the term for solution topography in areas of limestone bedrock.Karst

          

  366. Antecedent StreamsAs a mountain uplifts, the stream downcuts just as fast maintaining its original course, cutting across the range.

          

  367. Geyser deposits tend to form ______.bedrock hills in a highly eroded desert landscape

          

  368. One of the common surface features of karst landscapes are sinkholes, also known as _____.sinkholes

          

  369. ________ refers to the "bouncing" mode of sand transport in a windstorm or stream.Saltation

          

  370. RadialFrom a point uplift (Mesa, Volcano, etc)

          

  371. The production of travertine first requires that ______ dissolves in hot water and makes an acid that dissolves great quantities of limestone.carbon dioxide

          

  372. What is the lithosphere composed of?depositional features created by the seemingly endless dripping of water over great spans of time; the calcium carbonate that is left behind produces the limestone we call travertine

          

  373. Granites is a type of rock which has cooled from magma.True