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373 Multiple choice questions

  1. large clasts are stranded
  2. the source of springs is water from the zone of saturation and the ultimate source of this water is precipitaion; whenever the water table intersects Earth's surface, a natural outflow of groundwater results (spring);
  3. dolines
  4. water soaks into the ground bc bedrock, sediment and soil contain countless voids or opening that are similar to a sponge
  5. calcium carbonate
  6. surface location directly above the point where the fault slip initiates
  7. True
  8. Land areas that drain into a specific trunk stream
    -Also known as CATCHMENTS or WATERSHEDS
  9. Yosemite National Park.
  10. Larger particles roll, slide, and bounce along
  11. Deepest part of the channel
  12. True
  13. Often form geometric patterns
    -Reflect underlying geology
    Several common patterns
  14. when an aquitard blocks the downward movement of groundwater and forces it to move laterally; a spring results where the permeable bed outcrops
  15. velocity of groundwater flow is proportional to the slope of the water table- the steeper the slope, the faster the water moves (bc the steeper the slope, the greater the pressure difference b/t 2 points): made by Henri Darcy (Darcy's Law)
  16. the dry valleys of eastern California and Nevada
  17. True
  18. (1) water is confined to an aquifer that is inclined so that one end can receive water and (2) aquitards, both above and below the aquifier, must be present to prevent the water from escaping which is called a confined aquifier
  19. True
  20. 30 times
  21. by calving of large piedmont glaciers in Greenland
  22. True
  23. exfoliation
  24. mudflow
  25. consolidation of the ground material by rapid ground water depletion
  26. horizontally vibrating surface waves
  27. Lowest point a stream can erode
    -ultimate base is sea level
    -can't erode below

    -A lake serves as a local (or temporary) base level
  28. where water that is not held as soil moisture percolates downward until it reaches a zone where all of the open spaces in sediment and rock are completely filled with water
  29. Amount of water flowing in a channel
    -volume passing a point per unit of time
    -cubic feet per second
    -cubic meters per second
    -Given by a cross-sectional area times flowing velocity
    -varies seasonally due to precipitation and runoff

    Example: Niagara Falls (200,000 ft3/sec)
    Discharge = Q x A
  30. Stream flow is characteristically turbulent
    -chaotic and erratic
    -abundant mixing
    -swirling oddities
    -high velocity
  31. Tectonic Uplift can alter a course of a major river
    Early Mesozoic, South American drained westward
    Western uplift raised Andes
    - now flows east
  32. running water picks up sediment and moves it
  33. Change with discharge
  34. Uniformitarianism
  35. -Competence is reduced and sediment drops out
    -Sediment grain sizes sorted by water
    -sands removed from gravel, mud from both
    -Gravel settles in channels
    -Sands drop out near channel environments
    -silts and clays drape flood plains away from
  36. False
  37. Reid's elastic rebound theory
  38. landscapes that are shaped by dissolution (dissolving power of groundwater)
  39. when the ground sinks and water is pumped faster than natural recharge processes ex: San Joaquin Valley of California
  40. Antarctica
  41. Not uniform in all areas of channels
    Friction shows water along the edges creates greater friction
  42. Petrology
  43. clay's ability to store water is great (high porosity) but its pore spaces are sos mall that the water is unable to move through it so it has poor permeability (aquitard); but larger particles like sand or gravel have larger pore spaces so water moves with ease (aquifiers)
  44. originated as rock flour in Pleistocene glacial streams and rivers
  45. (1) treating groundwater as a nonrenewable resource; (2) subsidence; (3) saltwater contamination
  46. -Not flow all year
    -Above the water table
    -Dry climates
    -low rainfall
    -high evaporation
    -flow mostly during rare flash floods
  47. Accumulation exceeds wastage.
  48. once every hundred and fifty years
  49. slump
  50. Weathering
  51. sheets of particpated matter.
  52. backwards rotation.
  53. the most common method for removing groundwater; a hold bored into the zone of saturation; serve as small reservoirs into which groundwater migrates and from which it can be pumped to the surface; MUST penetrate below the water table
  54. As a mountain uplifts, the stream downcuts just as fast maintaining its original course, cutting across the range.
  55. Floodrisk analysis
    -Discharge plotted vs. Recurrence Levels
    -Straight line
  56. regions likely to be flooded
    -prevent from building
    -abandon buildings in the areas
  57. identify a mechanism capable of moving continents
  58. Channels choked by sediments
    Flow formed around sediment obstructions
    -DIVERGING- converging flow creates sand and gravel BARS
    -Bars unstable, sand and gravel cannot stick together so it eventually collapses (no cut in the channel from stream)
  59. matter moved by streams
  60. kettle
  61. wash
  62. Flowing Water
    -Eroding, transports, deposits sediments
    -sculpts landscapes
    -moves mess from continents to ocean basins
  63. True
  64. 20 and 30
  65. When streams cut down into landscape that was originally near the stream's base level
  66. when ice is excluded and just liquid water is considered, more than 94% of all freshwater is groundwater
  67. Alternating resistant and weak rocks
  68. denudation.
  69. loess deposits
  70. Lake Erie drops 55 m flowing toward Lake Ontario
    -Dolostone rock is resistant, underlying shale erodes
    -Blocks unsupported dolostone collapse and fall
    -Falls continuously erode south to lake erie
    -Erosion shows deglaciation has formed Niagara Gorge
    -Diversion of falls reveals huge blocks of rock
    -Rate of waterfall retreat- present .5 m/yr
    -Erie will drain when falls reach it
  71. Lines of earthquake epicenters
  72. determines the chance of occurence
  73. Dissolved Load-
    Suspended Load-
    Bed load-
  74. They occur in the open ocean, wavelengths are many miles or kilometers and wave heights are only a few feet.
  75. True
  76. Fragmentation of bedrock
  77. -Changes character with distance
    -In profile, gradient describes a concave-up curve
  78. by saltation in the first few meters above the land surface
  79. True
  80. slump
  81. true
  82. False
  83. hot spot
  84. sinkholes
  85. ...
  86. elastic strain
  87. False
  88. Streams cascade or free fall
    Energy causes a PLUNGE POOL at base
    Erosion initiates collapse of overlying rocks
    -temporary base levels
  89. one where the rocks are mostly limestone
  90. Stream runoff is a component of this
  91. one common source of groundwater is sewage; if sewage water that is contaminated with bacteria enters the system, it may become purified by natural processes; permeable layers transmit quickly (not purified) and slower movement allows water to be purified (sand, permeable sandstone)

    other sources of contamination: highway salt, fertilizers, pesticides, chemical/industrial materials
  92. measuring difference in elevation between two points on the water table (h1-h2) divided by the distance between them (d); wells are used to determine the heigh of the water
  93. Oceans - 97.2 %

    Other- 2.8 %
    -Glaciers - 2.15%
    -Ground Water- .62%
    -Freshwater Lakes- .009%
    -Saline Lake/Inland Seas- .008%
    -Stream Channels- .0001%
  94. talus
  95. its elevation can be mapped and studied in detail where wells are numerous bc the water level in wells coincides w the water table
  96. Controlled by jointed rocks (limestone, fractures)

    Example: San Andreas
  97. water table is the upper limit of the zone of saturation and is a very significant feature of the groundwater system; it is important in predicting the productivity of wells, explaining the changes in the flow of springs and streams, and accounting for fluctuations in the levels of lakes
  98. Gradient Flattens
    Higher Discharges
    Smaller grains typical
    Channels describe broad meander belts
  99. any situation in which groundwater under pressure rises above the level of the aquifier
  100. Talus
  101. exfoliation
  102. Force of water can...
    -break chunks of rock off the channel
    -lift rocks off the channel bottom
  103. temperatures in deep mines and oil wells usually rise with increasing depth; so when groundwater circulates at great depths is becomes heated and if it rises to the surface, the water may emerge as a hot spring; 95% of hot springs in US are found in the West bc the source of heat for most hot springs is cooling igneous rocks
  104. Drinking, Transport, Waste disposal, recreation, irrigation
  105. Precambrian
  106. Water on the outside of the channel flows fastest and erosion eats away at the channel walls creating a cut bank.
  107. aftershocks
  108. high pressure
  109. The crust and the uppermost mantle
  110. marble
  111. True
  112. the percentage of total volume of rock or sediment that consists of pore spaces
  113. medial
  114. sinkholes
  115. True
  116. magma
  117. Greater in wider, shallower streams
    Lesser in narrower, deeper streams
  118. True
  119. a stalactite
  120. Average number of years between successive floods
  121. Resevoirs make irrigation and hydroelectric power
    Recreation areas

    Alter ecosystems, barriers to fish, decreased nutrients downstream, removing delta sediment source
  122. assumes a cone of depression
  123. Master joints
  124. form as drops of water from the ceiling of a cave, lose dissolved carbon dioxide by entering into the cave with the atmospheric air
  125. mineral deposits
  126. wavy, banded lines
  127. sodium
  128. Relief
  129. in general moves very rapidly through pore spaces of materials in the subsurface
  130. the capillary fringe that extends upward from the water table and groundwater is held by surface tension in tiny passages between grains of soil or sediment; (capillus= hair)
  131. a divergent plate boundary
  132. calcite
  133. in some regions, groundwater has been and continues to be treated as this which means the water available to recharge the aquifier falls significantly short of the amount being withdrawn
  134. Devestate people and property
    During a flood
    -flow exceeds volume of the channel
    -Velocity (capacity and competence) increase
    -Water leaves channel and immerses adjacent land
    -Moving water and debris scour flood plains
    -Water slows away from the river
  135. U
  136. Stratsgraphic variations often yield a stair step profile
    -Strong rocks yield vertical cliffs
    -Weak rock produce sloped walls
    -Geologic processes stack strong and wear rocks
    -Valleys stowe sediment when base level is reached
    -Renewed incision creates stream terraces
    -terraces mark former flood plains

    V-Shaped Valley-
  137. People living in floodplains have danger
    -Flood risks for insurance, home ownders, lenders, gov agencies
  138. Overtime, the nearby channels merge into a large single TRUNK STEAM.
  139. joint
  140. hanging valley
  141. a speleothem; icicle like pendants that hang form teh ceiling of the cavern and form where water seeps through cracks above
  142. granite
  143. silicates
  144. False
  145. a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate
  146. True
  147. master joints
  148. pillar
  149. bicarbonate
  150. Pangaea
  151. Are turbulent water with rough surface
    -Reflect geologic control
    -Flow over bed rock steps
    -Over large clasts
    -prompt narrowing of a channel
    -sudden increase in gradient
  152. subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries
  153. divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma
  154. solifluction
  155. a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions
  156. Array of linked channels
    -the networks change overtime
  157. When stream enters standing water
    -current slows and loses competence, dropping out sediment
    -Forms a number of distributaries
  158. Water in motion over the land surface
  159. Uplands that separate drainage basins
  160. Karst
  161. Streams carve channels into the flat strata; when they eventually erode down through the unconformity and start to downcut into the folded strate, they maintain their earlier course, ignoring the structure of the folded strata
    -pre-existing geometry has been laid down on the rock structure
  162. I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake
  163. tropical
  164. absorbs water
  165. 1993- jet stream high altitude winder current drifted southward
    -Trapped moist, humid air from Gulf.
    -Air rose and cooled releasing torrents of rain (years worth)
    -Entered two rivers, flooded
    -50 dead, 250,000 no drinking water, houses covered silt, 55,000 homes destroyed
  166. -Raising base level results in an increase in deposition
    -Lowering base level accelerates erosion

    -A ledge of resistant rock may define local base level
    -Erosive forces act to slowly remove the resistant layers
    -Act to restore longitudinal profile
  167. New Madrid, Missouri
  168. eruption
  169. Cool, dry air aloft is descending; surface winds are blowing toward the equator.
  170. soil creep
  171. the area above the water table that includes the capillary fringe and zone of soil moisture
  172. False
  173. Turning some rivers into deadly cesspools
    Raw sewage and drainage from urban areas
    -Fertilizers, industrial sites, animal waste
  174. True
  175. mantle
  176. -Sediment grains in flow "sandblast" rocks
    -bedrocks exposed in channels often polished and smooth

    -Gravel surrounding turbulent eddies drills holes in the bedrock
    -bowl shaped depresions - POTHOLES
    -Unusual and intricate sculptes
  177. intermittent hot springs or fountains in which columns of water are ejected with great force at various intervals
  178. mineral matter dissolves in water
  179. difference between annual precipitation and evaporation potential
  180. sinkholes
  181. calcium and magnesium ions
  182. Diastrophism
  183. -Flows all year
    -At or below the water table
    -Humid or temperate
    -sufficient rainfall
    -lower evaporation
    -Discharge varies seasonally
  184. Branching "treelike" pattern due to a uniform material. Formed on flat lying land
  185. depositional features created by the seemingly endless dripping of water over great spans of time; the calcium carbonate that is left behind produces the limestone we call travertine
  186. buildings built on top of bedrock cavities.
  187. limestone
  188. changes in the Moon's orbit due to shifting plates
  189. Karst
  190. It refers to the crust's ability to sink down into the mantle when the crust's mass increases and to rebound when its mass is lessened.
  191. Pleistocene epoch
  192. 2 meters
  193. kettle
  194. the Moho
  195. Fined particles (silt and clay) in flow
  196. the effect whenever water is withdrawn from a well, the water table is lowered; decreases with increasing distance from the well
  197. Fluvial sediments are called this
    -Channels are decorated with mud-channel bars
    -sands build up to t he point bars inside meander beds
    -muds deposit from channel during floods
    -streams builds a sediment delta upon entering fan
  198. impermeable layers that hinder or prevent water movement (ex:clay)
  199. True
  200. False
  201. ...
  202. Meandering stream channels cover a small portion
    Typically has escarpment or bluff along sides and channels over flow to flood plains in entire region
  203. northward movement of India into Eurasia
  204. Liquefaction and foundation failures were common.
  205. there is no movement along joints
  206. Gradient is steep
    discharge is low
    sediments coarse
    channels are straight and rocky
  207. rise by 20 meters
  208. because fresh water is less dense than saltwater, it floats on the saltwater and forms a large lens-shaped body; the depth of the fresh water below sea level is about 40x greater than the elevation of the water above sea level
    *so when excessive pumping lowers the water table by a certain amount, the bottom of the freshwater zone will rise by 40x that amount ; therefore if groundwater withdrawal continues to exceed recharge, there will come a time when the elevation of the saltwater will be sufficiently high to be drawn into wells, thus contamination the freshwater supply
  209. Flood control is expensive and sometimes trivial
    -Dams on tributaries hold back water from trunk stream
    -Fake levees and flood walls increase channel volume
  210. shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate
  211. gypsum
  212. Gold
  213. fumarole
  214. creep
  215. stalactites
  216. Stream flow begins as a moving sheetwash
    -thin surface layer of water
    -moves down steep slopes
    -erodes the substrate
  217. continental rift along which parts of the African continent are beginning to slowly separate
  218. when the pressure surface at a certain location is below ground level
  219. -sinkholes or sinks- irregular terrain punctuated with many depressions
    -lack of surface drainage (streams)- following rainfall, the runoff is quickly funneled below ground through sinks and flows through caverns until it reaches the water table but this is where streams do not exist at the surface and their paths are usually short
    -irregular terrain
    -carbonate, sulfate, or salt beds at/near ground surface
    -characterized by solution valleys, disappearing streams and sinkholes
  220. limestone
  221. small crystals
  222. likelihood that a flood of a given size or larger will happen at a specified locality during any given year
  223. limestone
  224. clay because it has a high porosity because it is packed tightly and sorted well
  225. Watersheds exist in a variety of scales
    -tiny tributaries
    -continental rivers

    Large Watersheds
    -Feed large rivers
    -section continents

    Continental divides separate flow to different oceans
  226. sinkholes
  227. Carbonic
  228. are faster than S waves and surface waves
  229. due to algae
  230. Biggest particles typify steep gradients in head waters
    Fine particles typify gentler gradients near mouth
  231. denudation
  232. ventifact
  233. ...
  234. solution cavities
  235. normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge
  236. peptides
  237. mid-ocean ridges
  238. convergent (subducting)
  239. Steppes
  240. True
  241. west to east
  242. Vertical sinking of the Earth's surface in a region, relative to a reference plane
  243. Inside edge of channel has slow moving water such that the competence decreaes and sediment accumulates creating a wedge also known as POINT BAR
  244. U-shaped valley
  245. slump
  246. Tropical rains on the Indian Subcontinent
    -Large rains and severe flooding
    -Many live in floodplain and delta plains
    -1990, Bangladesh...100,000 dead
  247. true
  248. rusting
  249. Travertine
  250. Stream Capture
    -A situation in which headward erosion causes one stream to intersect the coarse of another stream
  251. Water, carbone dioxide, and lime
  252. False
  253. False
  254. permeable rock strata or sediment that transmit groundwater freely (ex: sands/gravels)
  255. lateral, valley or alpine glacier
  256. well sorted sandstone
  257. sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subduction zone
  258. thickness of the rock system
  259. Solifluction
  260. pyroclastic material
  261. Richter
  262. a material's ability to transmit a fluid
  263. the flow velocity varies with the permeability of the sediment- groundwater flows more rapidly through sediments having greater permeability; this is the coefficient that takes into account the permeability of the aquifier and viscosity of the fluid
  264. magnetosphere
  265. Sediments rapidly dropped near stream source
    -coarsest material found near stream source
    -sediments fine and thing away from source
    Sediments create conical, fan shaped stretches
    Forms at base of a mountain front
  266. Rivers of water flowing down channels
  267. calving
  268. Light colored silicate minerals; dark-colored silicate minerals.
  269. carbon dioxide
  270. Wyoming.
  271. True
  272. bedrock
  273. Evaporation
  274. calcite
  275. True
  276. Stream flow begins as water is added to the surface
    -Melted snow adds water
    -snow and rain add water
    -swamps and puddles collect water on flat land
  277. swallow holes
  278. Fan of smaller streams
  279. True
  280. Maximized during floods
    -Large water volume
    -high water velocities
    -Abundant sediment

  281. Cementing agents that precipitate out of water
  282. magma
  283. 30%
  284. Cirques
  285. a type of spring formation where an aquitard is situated above the main water table, as water percolated downward a portion of it is intercepted by the aquitard, creating a localized zone of saturation and a perched water table
  286. mass wasting
  287. chemical action
  288. Maximum size transported
  289. Liquefaction
  290. barchan
  291. The meander that has been cut off from via a cutoff in a straight reach
  292. hanging valley and truncated spur
  293. granite
  294. Stream runoff also causes problems
    -flooding destroys lives and properties
  295. clay
  296. True
  297. whenever there is a localized aquiclude within an aquifer
  298. hydrolysis.
  299. Hydrologic data is used to measure this
    There are maps regulating areas to manage risks
    Building in floodplains strictly regulated
  300. amplitude of the seismic waves
  301. False
  302. Large cobble & boulders may move
  303. desert pavement
  304. rocks formed by glaciers in South Africa and South America
  305. bedrock hills in a highly eroded desert landscape
  306. by definition, the water in hot springs is 6-9 degrees Celsius; warmer than the mean annual air temperature for the localities where they occur
  307. Melting at the base of the glacier resulting in increased rates of basal slip
  308. evaporates
  309. False
  310. export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
  311. Pacific
  312. Saltation
  313. Thirst increases worldwide but water does not
    Need so much more today
  314. Sinkholes
  315. True
  316. seismograph; Richter
  317. True
  318. expands in volume.
  319. True
  320. exfoliation
  321. the volume of ground water flowing in a specified amount of time is proportional to the vertical drop in the height of the water table between two points divided by the horizontal distance between the two points
  322. Basal slip
  323. From a point uplift (Mesa, Volcano, etc)
  324. Sheetwash erosion creates these
    The rills coalsece, deepen and downcut into CHANNELS
  325. focus
  326. basalt
  327. the chemical union of water with another substance to yield to a new compound that is weaker than the original rock or mineral.
  328. measured directly using various dyes and carbon-14
  329. The generation of Earth's magnetic field
  330. the basal, sliding zone
  331. exfoliation
  332. strata
  333. Cities cover large areas with impermeable concrete
    -Stream water runoff from cities destructive
    -shorter lag time between rainfall and flood flow
    -large discharges for shorter duratiosn
    -Water does not go in ground but floods
  334. Stream flow doeswork
    -energy imparted to streamflow is derived from gravity
    -streams do work by converting potential to kinetic energy
  335. True
  336. True
  337. True
  338. tarn lake
  339. False
  340. a non renewable resource spot; has low rainfall, high evaporation which means little recharge: decline in texas with over 150 ft. since agricultural development
  341. 15,000 yrs
  342. Maximum velocity travels the outside curve
    -outside curve is preferentially scoured and deepened
    -Deepest part of the channels is the THALWEG
    -flow around curve follows a spiral path
  343. small
  344. rise of water above the level of a confined aquifer if a well is drilled into the aquifer
  345. Intense scoring marks entry into the channels
    -rapid erosion lengthening the channel further upslope
  346. 11 thousand years ago, ice dams failed
    -Glacial Lake Missoula
    -Scarred eastern Washington
    -Created Channeled Scablands of Washington
    -barren craggy, stripped rock
  347. Highest velocity in the center
    -very few natural straight channels
  348. Landscapes evolve over time
    Stream flow causes most changes
    EX: -Uplift sets new base level
    -Stream cuts former surface
    -Valleys widen, hills erode
    -Landscape divided to base level
  349. Channels can form intricately looping curves
    -snake-like curves
    -travel over broad flat-plains with underlying soft substrate
    -Region where river has a gentle gradient
    -Meanders increase volume of river by making longer
    -Become sinuous with time
  350. speleothems that form on the floor of a cavern and reach upward toward the ceiling water galls from the ceiling and splatters over the surface
  351. irrigation
  352. result from a drawdown and forms a depression in the water table, roughly conical shape
  353. liquid water
  354. flat, upland surfaces, steep slopes and small alluvial fans
  355. debris flow
  356. neutral hence most suitable for majority of plants and microorganisms.
  357. that the ground water partly be heated at a temperature above boiling and partly with a cap of a layer of cold water within a reservoir that offers limited convective mixing of the water
  358. centimeters or may be one or two meters per day
  359. False
  360. the zone of aeration from the underlying zone of saturation
  361. Flow obstructions
    Shear in water

    -Turbulent eddies scour channel beds
  362. Alluvial fans typically rim desert valleys; playas form in the lowest, interior parts of the valleys.
  363. maximum load transported
  364. wedging
  365. True
  366. Ions from mineral weathering
  367. Rapid water rise with little warning
    From unusual intense rainfall or dam failure
    -Typified by rapid moving wall of debris laden water
    -1889, Johnstown
  368. when the pressure surface is above the ground and a well is drilled into the aquifier
  369. Reid; 1906, San Francisco
  370. a stream valley, deepened by glacial erosion, that floods as sea level rises
  371. Runoff and deflation carry off the silt and clay, leaving coarser particles behind.
  372. magma chamber
  373. The epicenter is at the surface directly above the focus where the earthquake initiates.