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318 Matching questions

  1. The rock debris which accumulates at the base of steep slopes by gravitational actions is called _________.
  2. what is the water table?
  3. Deltas
  4. What is the rate of flow of shallow ground water?
  5. Erosion Maximization
  6. What type of moraine would be most useful for tracing diamond-bearing kimberlite fragments directly to their bedrock source area?
  7. A very long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a ________.
  8. what is the biggest use of groundwater?
  9. In hydrothermal situations, superheating of water is possible because of the presence of _______.
  10. Inselbergs are ________.
  11. The slowest and least perceptible form of mass wasting is ______.
  12. ______ refers to the altitudinal difference between the highest and lowest points in an area
  13. ______ must take place FIRST during the denudation of a landscape.
  14. By far, the world's largest concentration of hydrothermal features occurs in ______.
  15. what are the factors that determine the hydraulic gradient?
  16. What is required for the development of geysers?
  17. Capacity and Competence
  18. Frost shattering is also called frost ______.
  19. Which of the following is a MASSIVE accumulation of calcium carbonate?
  20. Like faults, a ________ is a separation in a rock body.
  21. what conditions have to be met to have an artesian well?
  22. what are subsurface and surface structures associated with karst topography?
  23. Which of the following characteristics would suggest geologically recent, fault uplift of a desert mountain range?
  24. where are we likely to find hot springs?
  25. The ________ of the geologic time scale represents the time of the most recent "Ice Age."
  26. Deposition of glacial rock flour from blowing winds is responsible for ________.
  27. Joints can be distinguished from faults in that
  28. Which one of the following statements concerning foci and epicenters is correct?
  29. what are cave pillars made of?
  30. The general term signifying the overall lowering of the rock material on the Earth's crust is ________.
  31. A ________ is an erosional feature specifically produced by alpine glaciation.
  32. Dam Construction
  33. which sediment would you expect to have the greatest porosity?: limestone, poorly sorted alluvim or clay?
  34. What caused the leaning of the Pisa Tower in Italy?
  35. Thalweg
  36. What is isostasy?
  37. drawdown
  38. ________ most effectively outline the edges of the lithospheric plates.
  39. What does the permeability of a rock system NOT depend on?
  40. Sedimentary deposits built into relatively regular layers are known as ______.
  41. Ice Age Megafloods
  42. The term "exfoliation dome" is best applied to _______.
  43. Just beneath the surface of Yellowstone National PArk is a large ______.
  44. Sedimentary strata are always formed horizontally.
  45. Rill Channels
  46. Bed Load
  47. The Mercalli Scale is a scale from ________.
  48. Stream Rejuvenation
  49. The slight displacement of human built structures such as fences, posts, and telephone poles is subtle evidence that _____ has occurred.
  50. what determines groundwater movement and how fast?
  51. In what type of region do caves form?
  52. If an excessive pumping of ground water in a coastal area lowers the water table at a locality by 0.5 meter, what will the contact btw. the fresh ground water and the salty ground water in the locality do?
  53. subsidence
  54. well
  55. The brilliant colors around hot springs and geysers is _________.
  56. The process of ______, involves the lowering of continental surfaces and is accomplished by a combination of three processes: weathering, mass wasting, and erosion.
  57. Near the HEAD WATER source of the stream
  58. where do springs form?
  59. Forming Streams
  60. All major geyser basins are similar in that they are covered with ______.
  61. what are 3 problems that arise from heavy pumping of well water in a region with a slow recharge rate (not enough rainfall to replenish the groundwater)?
  62. The water table separates?
  63. The chemical union of water with another substance is called _________.
  64. Rectangular
  65. A transform plate boundary is characterized by ________.
  66. Water is a major agent of weathering because of its property that, when it freezes, it decreases in density and _______.
  67. What are stalagmites and stalagtites are made up of?
  68. Braided Stream
  69. What holds most sedimentary rocks together?
  70. The single most important weathering agent is
  71. Cavern openings to the surface are usually _____.
  72. Case History: Mississipii and Missouri Rivers
  73. Ephemeral (Streams)
  74. stalactites
  75. Water Along the Edges
  76. Stream flow
  77. When a stalactite meets a stalagmite the result is a _______.
  78. geysers
  79. Deep-oceanic trenches are most abundant around the rim of the ________ ocean basin.
  80. permeability
  81. Floodways
  82. The main downslope movement of subarctic and arctic landscape is ______.
  83. Which of the following foundation materials is most stable during earthquake shaking?
  84. Niagara Falls
  85. Discharge
  86. A(n) ________ is similar in appearance to a sinkhole of a karst area.
  87. stalagmites
  88. What rock is a poor aquifer?
  89. Water is major agent of weathering because of its property that, when it freezes, it decreases in density and.....
  90. Which of the following is often associated with a cirque basin in high, mountainous terrain?
  91. Headward Erosion
  92. Cut Bank
  93. Urbanization
  94. What are the smaller magnitude quakes that follow a major earthquake?
  95. The following is found at the base of Earth's crust:
  96. cone of depression
  97. One of the common surface features of karst landscapes are sinkholes, also known as _____.
  98. Ground water
  99. Rapids
  100. Energy is stored in rocks adjacent to the site of a future earthquake as ________.
  101. Breaking and Lifting
  102. ________ refers to the tendency for a foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and fail mechanically during earthquake shaking.
  103. Low Discharge
  104. A ________ is formed by abrasion of rocks by windblown sand.
  105. Living with Floods
  106. Assume that the central slip face of a barchan dune slopes downhill toward the east. What is the direction of the prevailing wind?
  107. The former, late Paleozoic super continent is known as ________.
  108. Large _____ extend for considerable distances and depths through rock. Below the surface, there is minimal separation between the blocks on either side.
  109. The largest lateral, ground displacement is produced by ________.
  110. Topography is a synonym for geomorphology.
  111. When does a perched water table occur?
  112. Ogallala Aquifier
  113. Gravity is the main force impelling movement in all of the following except ______.
  114. Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth's lithospheric plates?
  115. Meandering Streams
  116. Dendritic
  117. Water table near a large pumping well..
  118. What does hard water contain large amounts of?
  119. Linear, magnetic patterns associated with mid-ocean ridges are configured as ________.
  120. Like limestone, _____ is highly susceptible to subsurface erosion.
  121. New oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at ________.
  122. Which of the following is the specific name given to the study of the characteristics of rocks?
  123. Underground water is a weak ______ acid.
  124. Suspended Load
  125. The ________ is directly related to the Richter earthquake-magnitude rating.
  126. Deposition of dissolved minerals in caverns leaves deposits such as the icicle like _____.
  127. Longitudinal Changes
  128. A fiord is ________.
  129. The ________ is the point of origination for an earthquake.
  130. where do you get springs? for example, why dont we have a spring popping up in front of dallas halls?
  131. Straight Channels
  132. Hydrologic Cycle
  133. A weathering type associated with curved and concentric sets of joints break away in successive layers is called ______.
  134. Dissolved Load
  135. How are sand grains transported by the wind?
  136. Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years?
  137. in a given volume of sediment, what texture would hold more water in an unsaturated state, clay or sand? why?
  138. The primary way in which underground water shapes topography is through _______.
  139. how can you find out where a water table is?
  140. Which process occurs where a glacier enters the sea?
  141. Valleys and Cannons
  142. aquitard
  143. Recurrence Interval
  144. The rapid appearance of new sinkholes in Florida can be explained by .....
  145. Annual Probability
  146. how does groundwater contamination happen, especially where there is heavy pumping of well water for drinking?
  147. zone of saturation (phreatic zone)
  148. Which of the following is NOT one of the principal categories of rock-forming minerals?
  149. Antecedent Streams
  150. A ________ cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers.
  151. ________ is a dark, fine-grained extrusive rock.
  152. Drainage Basins
  153. Approximately how long ago did the last of the great North American ice sheets melt?
  154. Sheetwash
  155. Which of the following best describes the climatic factors that cause low latitude deserts like the Sahara in Africa?
  156. Which of the following form of mass wasting is relatively fast and wet compared to the others?
  157. Water flowing into sinkholes frequently disappears into ______.
  158. ________ refers to the "bouncing" mode of sand transport in a windstorm or stream.
  159. Raging Waters
  160. hot springs
  161. In rock, _______ is an end product of common solution reactions.
  162. During a typical sandstorm, saltating sand grains reach a maximum height of ________ above the land surface.
  163. saltwater contamination
  164. Base Level
  165. A ________ is an intermittent stream channel in the dry land areas of the western United States.
  166. Which of the following is not very resistant to solution in water?
  167. "The angle of repose" is a term most closely associated with ________.
  168. what is an artesian well?
  169. The largest and most important mineral family consists of the _______.
  170. Which one of the following statements is correct?
  171. What type of moraine is formed by the merging of two lateral moraines at a junction of two valley glaciers?
  172. Subsidence
  173. Calculated Probability
  174. Monsoons
  175. Drainage Networks
  176. Sediment Load
  177. Dissolution
  178. The ________ is used to record ground shaking and the earthquake-magnitude scale was invented by ________.
  179. Rainshadow deserts are common in ________.
  180. Travertine and tufa are both composed of _________.
  181. When magma cools rapidly, it results in ________.
  182. Alluvial Fans
  183. hydraulic gradient
  184. Processes
  185. Sources of Earth's Water
  186. What is the circulation within Earth's outer core responsible for?
  187. Overuse of Water
  188. How do icebergs in the North Atlantic Ocean originate?
  189. Overtime
  190. what holds water around sedimentary particles?
  191. Flash Floods
  192. The thickest of Earth's interior layers is the _______.
  193. Causes of Turbulence
  194. ________ have rainfall amounts and soil moisture contents between those of true deserts and humid lands.
  195. Crucial for Humans
  196. The earliest Era in the Geologic time scale is _______.
  197. Turbulence
  198. Toward the Mouth...
  199. Three Load Types
  200. Runoff
  201. perched water table
  202. Distributaries
  203. The ________ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy released. It does not directly measure the extent of building damage.
  204. clay is a facilitator for mass wasting because clay _______.
  205. Pollution
  206. All of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for ________.
  207. Which of the following glacial features would typically be found in close proximity?
  208. Velocity
  209. Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5?
  210. Scours
  211. Graph Inspection
  212. The volcanoes and deep valleys of east Africa are related to a ________.
  213. Radial
  214. aquifier
  215. ________ is one of the two major flow mechanisms in a glacier.
  216. Competence
  217. Floodplain
  218. unsaturated zone (vadose)
  219. which sediment would you expect to have the greatest permeability: clay or sand?
  220. The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegener could not ________.
  221. Darcy's law
  222. The location of features, such as cliffs and valleys might be strongly influenced by the position of ______.
  223. Loess deposits in the central United States ________.
  224. ________ was struck by three major earthquakes during the winter and spring months of the years 1811-1812.
  225. A hot spring that water is known as a ______.
  226. Abrasion
  227. Drainage Reversal
  228. A slump is a downslope movement with a ________.
  229. A mudflow including numerous larger blocks of material is a(n) _______.
  230. Which of the following is an example of a speleothem?
  231. Which openings in rocks are associated with calcareous rocks?
  232. Which one of the following is the one best measure of the wetness or dryness of a region?
  233. Drainage Divides
  234. Permanent (Streams)
  235. A soil pH measuring 7 on the standard pH scale is considered:
  236. pore spaces
  237. Pull-apart, rift zones are generally associated with ________.
  238. The totality of minerals ejected from a volcano including liquid material, ashes and dust is termed:
  239. Which one of the following will effectively limit further deflation in a given area?
  240. What is Karst topography characterized by?
  241. Abrasion and plucking generally involve what part of a glacier?
  242. The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is ________.
  243. Deep ocean trenches are surficial evidence for ________.
  244. Lithification involves compaction and cementation
  245. Drainage Network
  246. ________ is a widely accepted explanation for the mechanism that generates earthquakes.
  247. Trellis
  248. _______ are typically found at the intersections of joints.
  249. The single most important mechanism of transport for weathered overburden in the subarctic zones is _______.
  250. ___________ is an example of a native element.
  251. _________ is a term which refers to solution landscapes and literally means "barren land"?
  252. _________ is the most obvious result of weathering.
  253. Stream piracy
  254. Capacity
  255. Deep-focus earthquakes, those between 300 and 700 kilometers below the surface, occur only in association with ________.
  256. Geyser deposits tend to form ______.
  257. Important Geological Agent
  258. P waves ________.
  259. Why was the Marina District, San Francisco, heavily damaged in the 1906 and 1989 quakes?
  260. Superposed Streams
  261. Foliation refers to this characteristic of metamorphosed rocks:
  262. When subjected to metamorphism, limestone usually becomes ________.
  263. Wedge-Shaped Bank
  264. Which one of the following most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?
  265. Curved Channels
  266. The largest sinkholes are in ________ regions.
  267. Approximately how often do locked segments of the San Andreas Fault (California) break, resulting in major earthquakes?
  268. Streams Guide Sediment with Transport
  269. When velocity of flow decreases
  270. What are Artesian ground-water systems characterized by?
  271. Divides
  272. The elastic rebound theory for the origin of earthquakes was first proposed by ________ following the ________ earthquake.
  273. Waterfalls
  274. What is the lithosphere composed of?
  275. Most dry lands lie between ________ degrees north and south of the equator.
  276. Felsic igneous rocks contain large portions of ______ while mafic igneous rocks contain large portions of ________.
  277. Base level changes cause stream...
  278. The process of hydrolysis involves ________.
  279. karst topography
  280. Which rock would make the best aquifer?
  281. When hot water is ejected from a geyser, that flow is called an ________.
  282. Which one of the following is true regarding tsunamis?
  283. A ________ is a crescent-shaped dune whose tips point downwind.
  284. Problems
  285. ________ are erosional features produced by valley/alpine glaciers.
  286. hydraulic conductivity
  287. Which three substances are required to interact to form calcium bicarbonate?
  288. Drainage Evolution
  289. Erosional Processes
  290. The doctrine of ______ holds that the processes that are shaping the contemporary landscape are the same processes that formed topography of the past and are the same processes that will shape topography of the future.
  291. Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sink into the mantle at ________.
  292. How is desert pavement formed?
  293. non renewable resource
  294. why is it said that groundwater is the largest store of freshwater on earth that is "readily available to people"?
  295. High Discharge
  296. Floodrisk Analysis
  297. Stalactites and stalagmites
  298. ________ is an "Internal" process?
  299. ________ is the best explanation for a glacial surge.
  300. Alluvium
  301. Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today?
  302. Deep-focus earthquakes are associated with ________ plate boundaries.
  303. The production of travertine first requires that ______ dissolves in hot water and makes an acid that dissolves great quantities of limestone.
  304. The initial formation of Earth involved the solidification and cooling of ______.
  305. flowing artesian well
  306. nonfowing artesian well
  307. The mass-wasting type characterized by a crescent-shaped scarp face is the ______.
  308. Desert and steppe lands cover about what percentage of Earth's land area?
  309. The _______ is NOT a portion of Earth's interior.
  310. The most common oxidation effect in the lithosphere is _______.
  311. porosity
  312. Which of the following paleoclimatic evidence supports the idea of the late Paleozoic super continent in the Southern Hemisphere?
  313. The epicenter of an earthquake is the ________.
  314. The ________ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision.
  315. Marble is metamorphosed ________.
  316. Oxbow Lake
  317. why is it important to know the hydraulic gradient for groundwater in an area where one might want to build a home and tap into an aquifier to supply drinking water?
  318. A(n) ________ is likely to host a waterfall or steep rapids today.
  1. a U-shaped valley
  2. b a divergent plate boundary
  3. c water soaks into the ground bc bedrock, sediment and soil contain countless voids or opening that are similar to a sponge
  4. d basalt
  5. e limestone
  6. f Streams cascade or free fall
    Energy causes a PLUNGE POOL at base
    Erosion initiates collapse of overlying rocks
    -temporary base levels
  7. g any situation in which groundwater under pressure rises above the level of the aquifier
  8. h Are turbulent water with rough surface
    -Reflect geologic control
    -Flow over bed rock steps
    -Over large clasts
    -prompt narrowing of a channel
    -sudden increase in gradient
  9. i the zone of aeration from the underlying zone of saturation
  10. j Accumulation exceeds wastage.
  11. k Branching "treelike" pattern due to a uniform material. Formed on flat lying land
  12. l a speleothem; icicle like pendants that hang form teh ceiling of the cavern and form where water seeps through cracks above
  13. m Hydrologic data is used to measure this
    There are maps regulating areas to manage risks
    Building in floodplains strictly regulated
  14. n Dissolved Load-
    Suspended Load-
    Bed load-
  15. o Cementing agents that precipitate out of water
  16. p high pressure
  17. q slump
  18. r small
  19. s Stream flow begins as water is added to the surface
    -Melted snow adds water
    -snow and rain add water
    -swamps and puddles collect water on flat land
  20. t True
  21. u dolines
  22. v velocity of groundwater flow is proportional to the slope of the water table- the steeper the slope, the faster the water moves (bc the steeper the slope, the greater the pressure difference b/t 2 points): made by Henri Darcy (Darcy's Law)
  23. w Cities cover large areas with impermeable concrete
    -Stream water runoff from cities destructive
    -shorter lag time between rainfall and flood flow
    -large discharges for shorter duratiosn
    -Water does not go in ground but floods
  24. x pyroclastic material
  25. y Melting at the base of the glacier resulting in increased rates of basal slip
  26. z 2 meters
  27. aa Tectonic Uplift can alter a course of a major river
    Early Mesozoic, South American drained westward
    Western uplift raised Andes
    - now flows east
  28. ab -Competence is reduced and sediment drops out
    -Sediment grain sizes sorted by water
    -sands removed from gravel, mud from both
    -Gravel settles in channels
    -Sands drop out near channel environments
    -silts and clays drape flood plains away from
  29. ac False
  30. ad Often form geometric patterns
    -Reflect underlying geology
    Several common patterns
  31. ae west to east
  32. af stalactites
  33. ag It refers to the crust's ability to sink down into the mantle when the crust's mass increases and to rebound when its mass is lessened.
  34. ah solution cavities
  35. ai Intense scoring marks entry into the channels
    -rapid erosion lengthening the channel further upslope
  36. aj the effect whenever water is withdrawn from a well, the water table is lowered; decreases with increasing distance from the well
  37. ak Alternating resistant and weak rocks
  38. al wash
  39. am impermeable layers that hinder or prevent water movement (ex:clay)
  40. an 1993- jet stream high altitude winder current drifted southward
    -Trapped moist, humid air from Gulf.
    -Air rose and cooled releasing torrents of rain (years worth)
    -Entered two rivers, flooded
    -50 dead, 250,000 no drinking water, houses covered silt, 55,000 homes destroyed
  41. ao 11 thousand years ago, ice dams failed
    -Glacial Lake Missoula
    -Scarred eastern Washington
    -Created Channeled Scablands of Washington
    -barren craggy, stripped rock
  42. ap Evaporation
  43. aq matter moved by streams
  44. ar exfoliation
  45. as determines the chance of occurence
  46. at Landscapes evolve over time
    Stream flow causes most changes
    EX: -Uplift sets new base level
    -Stream cuts former surface
    -Valleys widen, hills erode
    -Landscape divided to base level
  47. au lateral, valley or alpine glacier
  48. av Fan of smaller streams
  49. aw Greater in wider, shallower streams
    Lesser in narrower, deeper streams
  50. ax denudation.
  51. ay silicates
  52. az The epicenter is at the surface directly above the focus where the earthquake initiates.
  53. ba clay because it has a high porosity because it is packed tightly and sorted well
  54. bb mass wasting
  55. bc bedrock hills in a highly eroded desert landscape
  56. bd result from a drawdown and forms a depression in the water table, roughly conical shape
  57. be Stream flow begins as a moving sheetwash
    -thin surface layer of water
    -moves down steep slopes
    -erodes the substrate
  58. bf one where the rocks are mostly limestone
  59. bg the chemical union of water with another substance to yield to a new compound that is weaker than the original rock or mineral.
  60. bh calcium carbonate
  61. bi normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge
  62. bj rise by 20 meters
  63. bk Talus
  64. bl -Changes character with distance
    -In profile, gradient describes a concave-up curve
  65. bm calcium and magnesium ions
  66. bn by saltation in the first few meters above the land surface
  67. bo elastic strain
  68. bp solifluction
  69. bq temperatures in deep mines and oil wells usually rise with increasing depth; so when groundwater circulates at great depths is becomes heated and if it rises to the surface, the water may emerge as a hot spring; 95% of hot springs in US are found in the West bc the source of heat for most hot springs is cooling igneous rocks
  70. br a stream valley, deepened by glacial erosion, that floods as sea level rises
  71. bs swallow holes
  72. bt the dry valleys of eastern California and Nevada
  73. bu Alluvial fans typically rim desert valleys; playas form in the lowest, interior parts of the valleys.
  74. bv are faster than S waves and surface waves
  75. bw absorbs water
  76. bx Sinkholes
  77. by sinkholes
  78. bz well sorted sandstone
  79. ca 15,000 yrs
  80. cb wavy, banded lines
  81. cc People living in floodplains have danger
    -Flood risks for insurance, home ownders, lenders, gov agencies
  82. cd Ions from mineral weathering
  83. ce Uniformitarianism
  84. cf Amount of water flowing in a channel
    -volume passing a point per unit of time
    -cubic feet per second
    -cubic meters per second
    -Given by a cross-sectional area times flowing velocity
    -varies seasonally due to precipitation and runoff

    Example: Niagara Falls (200,000 ft3/sec)
    Discharge = Q x A
  85. cg kettle
  86. ch where water that is not held as soil moisture percolates downward until it reaches a zone where all of the open spaces in sediment and rock are completely filled with water
  87. ci loess deposits
  88. cj when the pressure surface is above the ground and a well is drilled into the aquifier
  89. ck barchan
  90. cl Controlled by jointed rocks (limestone, fractures)

    Example: San Andreas
  91. cm As a mountain uplifts, the stream downcuts just as fast maintaining its original course, cutting across the range.
  92. cn continental rift along which parts of the African continent are beginning to slowly separate
  93. co large clasts are stranded
  94. cp Stream flow is characteristically turbulent
    -chaotic and erratic
    -abundant mixing
    -swirling oddities
    -high velocity
  95. cq measuring difference in elevation between two points on the water table (h1-h2) divided by the distance between them (d); wells are used to determine the heigh of the water
  96. cr form as drops of water from the ceiling of a cave, lose dissolved carbon dioxide by entering into the cave with the atmospheric air
  97. cs when the pressure surface at a certain location is below ground level
  98. ct chemical action
  99. cu the flow velocity varies with the permeability of the sediment- groundwater flows more rapidly through sediments having greater permeability; this is the coefficient that takes into account the permeability of the aquifier and viscosity of the fluid
  100. cv Richter
  101. cw the Moho
  102. cx 30%
  103. cy identify a mechanism capable of moving continents
  104. cz permeable rock strata or sediment that transmit groundwater freely (ex: sands/gravels)
  105. da Floodrisk analysis
    -Discharge plotted vs. Recurrence Levels
    -Straight line
  106. db bicarbonate
  107. dc They occur in the open ocean, wavelengths are many miles or kilometers and wave heights are only a few feet.
  108. dd marble
  109. de buildings built on top of bedrock cavities.
  110. df intermittent hot springs or fountains in which columns of water are ejected with great force at various intervals
  111. dg whenever there is a localized aquiclude within an aquifer
  112. dh Light colored silicate minerals; dark-colored silicate minerals.
  113. di tropical
  114. dj eruption
  115. dk originated as rock flour in Pleistocene glacial streams and rivers
  116. dl ...
  117. dm the capillary fringe that extends upward from the water table and groundwater is held by surface tension in tiny passages between grains of soil or sediment; (capillus= hair)
  118. dn Force of water can...
    -break chunks of rock off the channel
    -lift rocks off the channel bottom
  119. do The generation of Earth's magnetic field
  120. dp Sediments rapidly dropped near stream source
    -coarsest material found near stream source
    -sediments fine and thing away from source
    Sediments create conical, fan shaped stretches
    Forms at base of a mountain front
  121. dq evaporates
  122. dr Gradient is steep
    discharge is low
    sediments coarse
    channels are straight and rocky
  123. ds neutral hence most suitable for majority of plants and microorganisms.
  124. dt Watersheds exist in a variety of scales
    -tiny tributaries
    -continental rivers

    Large Watersheds
    -Feed large rivers
    -section continents

    Continental divides separate flow to different oceans
  125. du Pangaea
  126. dv Wyoming.
  127. dw speleothems that form on the floor of a cavern and reach upward toward the ceiling water galls from the ceiling and splatters over the surface
  128. dx Water in motion over the land surface
  129. dy sodium
  130. dz Pleistocene epoch
  131. ea liquid water
  132. eb due to algae
  133. ec creep
  134. ed Fined particles (silt and clay) in flow
  135. ee when an aquitard blocks the downward movement of groundwater and forces it to move laterally; a spring results where the permeable bed outcrops
  136. ef Stream Capture
    -A situation in which headward erosion causes one stream to intersect the coarse of another stream
  137. eg flat, upland surfaces, steep slopes and small alluvial fans
  138. eh shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate
  139. ei measured directly using various dyes and carbon-14
  140. ej ventifact
  141. ek once every hundred and fifty years
  142. el calcite
  143. em Weathering
  144. en 20 and 30
  145. eo Not uniform in all areas of channels
    Friction shows water along the edges creates greater friction
  146. ep maximum load transported
  147. eq Sheetwash erosion creates these
    The rills coalsece, deepen and downcut into CHANNELS
  148. er a non renewable resource spot; has low rainfall, high evaporation which means little recharge: decline in texas with over 150 ft. since agricultural development
  149. es rocks formed by glaciers in South Africa and South America
  150. et strata
  151. eu the volume of ground water flowing in a specified amount of time is proportional to the vertical drop in the height of the water table between two points divided by the horizontal distance between the two points
  152. ev when ice is excluded and just liquid water is considered, more than 94% of all freshwater is groundwater
  153. ew granite
  154. ex a material's ability to transmit a fluid
  155. ey Basal slip
  156. ez sheets of particpated matter.
  157. fa changes in the Moon's orbit due to shifting plates
  158. fb 30 times
  159. fc From a point uplift (Mesa, Volcano, etc)
  160. fd mid-ocean ridges
  161. fe pillar
  162. ff U
  163. fg Channels choked by sediments
    Flow formed around sediment obstructions
    -DIVERGING- converging flow creates sand and gravel BARS
    -Bars unstable, sand and gravel cannot stick together so it eventually collapses (no cut in the channel from stream)
  164. fh true
  165. fi Uplands that separate drainage basins
  166. fj a type of spring formation where an aquitard is situated above the main water table, as water percolated downward a portion of it is intercepted by the aquitard, creating a localized zone of saturation and a perched water table
  167. fk New Madrid, Missouri
  168. fl -Raising base level results in an increase in deposition
    -Lowering base level accelerates erosion

    -A ledge of resistant rock may define local base level
    -Erosive forces act to slowly remove the resistant layers
    -Act to restore longitudinal profile
  169. fm Oceans - 97.2 %

    Other- 2.8 %
    -Glaciers - 2.15%
    -Ground Water- .62%
    -Freshwater Lakes- .009%
    -Saline Lake/Inland Seas- .008%
    -Stream Channels- .0001%
  170. fn there is no movement along joints
  171. fo Change with discharge
  172. fp Streams carve channels into the flat strata; when they eventually erode down through the unconformity and start to downcut into the folded strate, they maintain their earlier course, ignoring the structure of the folded strata
    -pre-existing geometry has been laid down on the rock structure
  173. fq Drinking, Transport, Waste disposal, recreation, irrigation
  174. fr Array of linked channels
    -the networks change overtime
  175. fs hanging valley and truncated spur
  176. ft Lowest point a stream can erode
    -ultimate base is sea level
    -can't erode below

    -A lake serves as a local (or temporary) base level
  177. fu a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate
  178. fv Larger particles roll, slide, and bounce along
  179. fw (1) water is confined to an aquifer that is inclined so that one end can receive water and (2) aquitards, both above and below the aquifier, must be present to prevent the water from escaping which is called a confined aquifier
  180. fx Steppes
  181. fy Liquefaction and foundation failures were common.
  182. fz small crystals
  183. ga Channels can form intricately looping curves
    -snake-like curves
    -travel over broad flat-plains with underlying soft substrate
    -Region where river has a gentle gradient
    -Meanders increase volume of river by making longer
    -Become sinuous with time
  184. gb Biggest particles typify steep gradients in head waters
    Fine particles typify gentler gradients near mouth
  185. gc mineral deposits
  186. gd that the ground water partly be heated at a temperature above boiling and partly with a cap of a layer of cold water within a reservoir that offers limited convective mixing of the water
  187. ge magma
  188. gf Gradient Flattens
    Higher Discharges
    Smaller grains typical
    Channels describe broad meander belts
  189. gg Land areas that drain into a specific trunk stream
    -Also known as CATCHMENTS or WATERSHEDS
  190. gh The meander that has been cut off from via a cutoff in a straight reach
  191. gi hydrolysis.
  192. gj a stalactite
  193. gk Maximum velocity travels the outside curve
    -outside curve is preferentially scoured and deepened
    -Deepest part of the channels is the THALWEG
    -flow around curve follows a spiral path
  194. gl Flow obstructions
    Shear in water

    -Turbulent eddies scour channel beds
  195. gm surface location directly above the point where the fault slip initiates
  196. gn the area above the water table that includes the capillary fringe and zone of soil moisture
  197. go one common source of groundwater is sewage; if sewage water that is contaminated with bacteria enters the system, it may become purified by natural processes; permeable layers transmit quickly (not purified) and slower movement allows water to be purified (sand, permeable sandstone)

    other sources of contamination: highway salt, fertilizers, pesticides, chemical/industrial materials
  198. gp export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
  199. gq Travertine
  200. gr Tropical rains on the Indian Subcontinent
    -Large rains and severe flooding
    -Many live in floodplain and delta plains
    -1990, Bangladesh...100,000 dead
  201. gs hanging valley
  202. gt Reid's elastic rebound theory
  203. gu clay's ability to store water is great (high porosity) but its pore spaces are sos mall that the water is unable to move through it so it has poor permeability (aquitard); but larger particles like sand or gravel have larger pore spaces so water moves with ease (aquifiers)
  204. gv rise of water above the level of a confined aquifer if a well is drilled into the aquifer
  205. gw its elevation can be mapped and studied in detail where wells are numerous bc the water level in wells coincides w the water table
  206. gx magma chamber
  207. gy Rapid water rise with little warning
    From unusual intense rainfall or dam failure
    -Typified by rapid moving wall of debris laden water
    -1889, Johnstown
  208. gz Turning some rivers into deadly cesspools
    Raw sewage and drainage from urban areas
    -Fertilizers, industrial sites, animal waste
  209. ha by calving of large piedmont glaciers in Greenland
  210. hb talus
  211. hc subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries
  212. hd depositional features created by the seemingly endless dripping of water over great spans of time; the calcium carbonate that is left behind produces the limestone we call travertine
  213. he -Sediment grains in flow "sandblast" rocks
    -bedrocks exposed in channels often polished and smooth

    -Gravel surrounding turbulent eddies drills holes in the bedrock
    -bowl shaped depresions - POTHOLES
    -Unusual and intricate sculptes
  214. hf amplitude of the seismic waves
  215. hg convergent (subducting)
  216. hh Cirques
  217. hi assumes a cone of depression
  218. hj -Not flow all year
    -Above the water table
    -Dry climates
    -low rainfall
    -high evaporation
    -flow mostly during rare flash floods
  219. hk the most common method for removing groundwater; a hold bored into the zone of saturation; serve as small reservoirs into which groundwater migrates and from which it can be pumped to the surface; MUST penetrate below the water table
  220. hl master joints
  221. hm aftershocks
  222. hn Antarctica
  223. ho because fresh water is less dense than saltwater, it floats on the saltwater and forms a large lens-shaped body; the depth of the fresh water below sea level is about 40x greater than the elevation of the water above sea level
    *so when excessive pumping lowers the water table by a certain amount, the bottom of the freshwater zone will rise by 40x that amount ; therefore if groundwater withdrawal continues to exceed recharge, there will come a time when the elevation of the saltwater will be sufficiently high to be drawn into wells, thus contamination the freshwater supply
  224. hp peptides
  225. hq Highest velocity in the center
    -very few natural straight channels
  226. hr clay
  227. hs Water on the outside of the channel flows fastest and erosion eats away at the channel walls creating a cut bank.
  228. ht gypsum
  229. hu Runoff and deflation carry off the silt and clay, leaving coarser particles behind.
  230. hv Diastrophism
  231. hw (1) treating groundwater as a nonrenewable resource; (2) subsidence; (3) saltwater contamination
  232. hx consolidation of the ground material by rapid ground water depletion
  233. hy Deepest part of the channel
  234. hz Fluvial sediments are called this
    -Channels are decorated with mud-channel bars
    -sands build up to t he point bars inside meander beds
    -muds deposit from channel during floods
    -streams builds a sediment delta upon entering fan
  235. ia Gold
  236. ib denudation
  237. ic Fragmentation of bedrock
  238. id Maximized during floods
    -Large water volume
    -high water velocities
    -Abundant sediment

  239. ie centimeters or may be one or two meters per day
  240. if Karst
  241. ig mantle
  242. ih irrigation
  243. ii carbon dioxide
  244. ij Overtime, the nearby channels merge into a large single TRUNK STEAM.
  245. ik The crust and the uppermost mantle
  246. il calving
  247. im Inside edge of channel has slow moving water such that the competence decreaes and sediment accumulates creating a wedge also known as POINT BAR
  248. in Carbonic
  249. io Average number of years between successive floods
  250. ip magnetosphere
  251. iq the basal, sliding zone
  252. ir hot spot
  253. is Liquefaction
  254. it Relief
  255. iu horizontally vibrating surface waves
  256. iv running water picks up sediment and moves it
  257. iw mudflow
  258. ix seismograph; Richter
  259. iy Lake Erie drops 55 m flowing toward Lake Ontario
    -Dolostone rock is resistant, underlying shale erodes
    -Blocks unsupported dolostone collapse and fall
    -Falls continuously erode south to lake erie
    -Erosion shows deglaciation has formed Niagara Gorge
    -Diversion of falls reveals huge blocks of rock
    -Rate of waterfall retreat- present .5 m/yr
    -Erie will drain when falls reach it
  260. iz -Flows all year
    -At or below the water table
    -Humid or temperate
    -sufficient rainfall
    -lower evaporation
    -Discharge varies seasonally
  261. ja Lines of earthquake epicenters
  262. jb joint
  263. jc Water, carbone dioxide, and lime
  264. jd Stream runoff also causes problems
    -flooding destroys lives and properties
  265. je when the ground sinks and water is pumped faster than natural recharge processes ex: San Joaquin Valley of California
  266. jf Resevoirs make irrigation and hydroelectric power
    Recreation areas

    Alter ecosystems, barriers to fish, decreased nutrients downstream, removing delta sediment source
  267. jg bedrock
  268. jh Petrology
  269. ji debris flow
  270. jj Master joints
  271. jk regions likely to be flooded
    -prevent from building
    -abandon buildings in the areas
  272. jl a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions
  273. jm mineral matter dissolves in water
  274. jn sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subduction zone
  275. jo Yosemite National Park.
  276. jp When streams cut down into landscape that was originally near the stream's base level
  277. jq Meandering stream channels cover a small portion
    Typically has escarpment or bluff along sides and channels over flow to flood plains in entire region
  278. jr Stratsgraphic variations often yield a stair step profile
    -Strong rocks yield vertical cliffs
    -Weak rock produce sloped walls
    -Geologic processes stack strong and wear rocks
    -Valleys stowe sediment when base level is reached
    -Renewed incision creates stream terraces
    -terraces mark former flood plains

    V-Shaped Valley-
  279. js by definition, the water in hot springs is 6-9 degrees Celsius; warmer than the mean annual air temperature for the localities where they occur
  280. jt When stream enters standing water
    -current slows and loses competence, dropping out sediment
    -Forms a number of distributaries
  281. ju Vertical sinking of the Earth's surface in a region, relative to a reference plane
  282. jv difference between annual precipitation and evaporation potential
  283. jw Reid; 1906, San Francisco
  284. jx Stream flow doeswork
    -energy imparted to streamflow is derived from gravity
    -streams do work by converting potential to kinetic energy
  285. jy tarn lake
  286. jz landscapes that are shaped by dissolution (dissolving power of groundwater)
  287. ka Precambrian
  288. kb wedging
  289. kc soil creep
  290. kd Saltation
  291. ke Flowing Water
    -Eroding, transports, deposits sediments
    -sculpts landscapes
    -moves mess from continents to ocean basins
  292. kf expands in volume.
  293. kg medial
  294. kh Large cobble & boulders may move
  295. ki in general moves very rapidly through pore spaces of materials in the subsurface
  296. kj thickness of the rock system
  297. kk Thirst increases worldwide but water does not
    Need so much more today
  298. kl backwards rotation.
  299. km Cool, dry air aloft is descending; surface winds are blowing toward the equator.
  300. kn the percentage of total volume of rock or sediment that consists of pore spaces
  301. ko focus
  302. kp rusting
  303. kq the source of springs is water from the zone of saturation and the ultimate source of this water is precipitaion; whenever the water table intersects Earth's surface, a natural outflow of groundwater results (spring);
  304. kr Solifluction
  305. ks northward movement of India into Eurasia
  306. kt likelihood that a flood of a given size or larger will happen at a specified locality during any given year
  307. ku Maximum size transported
  308. kv fumarole
  309. kw Devestate people and property
    During a flood
    -flow exceeds volume of the channel
    -Velocity (capacity and competence) increase
    -Water leaves channel and immerses adjacent land
    -Moving water and debris scour flood plains
    -Water slows away from the river
  310. kx Stream runoff is a component of this
  311. ky divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma
  312. kz water table is the upper limit of the zone of saturation and is a very significant feature of the groundwater system; it is important in predicting the productivity of wells, explaining the changes in the flow of springs and streams, and accounting for fluctuations in the levels of lakes
  313. la I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake
  314. lb -sinkholes or sinks- irregular terrain punctuated with many depressions
    -lack of surface drainage (streams)- following rainfall, the runoff is quickly funneled below ground through sinks and flows through caverns until it reaches the water table but this is where streams do not exist at the surface and their paths are usually short
    -irregular terrain
    -carbonate, sulfate, or salt beds at/near ground surface
    -characterized by solution valleys, disappearing streams and sinkholes
  315. lc Rivers of water flowing down channels
  316. ld Pacific
  317. le desert pavement
  318. lf in some regions, groundwater has been and continues to be treated as this which means the water available to recharge the aquifier falls significantly short of the amount being withdrawn