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37 True/False questions

  1. FaultA fracture on which one body of rock slides past another.

          

  2. strainThe compass trend of an imaginary horizontal line on a plane.

          

  3. monoclineA trough-shaped fold whose limbs dip toward the hinge.

          

  4. synclineA trough-shaped fold whose limbs dip toward the hinge.

          

  5. tensionA stress that pulls on a material and could lead to stretching.

          

  6. foliationA change in the shape, position, or orientation of a material, by bending, breaking, or flowing.

          

  7. basinA seam of minerals that forms when dissolved ions carried by water solutions precipitate in cracks.

          

  8. reverse faultA gently dipping reverse fault; the hanging-wall block moves up the slope of the fault.

          

  9. axial surfaceA stress that moves one part of a material sideways past another part.

          

  10. orogenyA mountain-building event.

          

  11. pressureThe push, pull, or shear that a material feels when subjected to a force; formally, the force applied per unit area over which the force acts.

          

  12. foldA fracture on which one body of rock slides past another.

          

  13. veinA seam of minerals that forms when dissolved ions carried by water solutions precipitate in cracks.

          

  14. stressThe push, pull, or shear that a material feels when subjected to a force; formally, the force applied per unit area over which the force acts.

          

  15. DisplacementFolded or arched layers with the shape of an overturned bowl.

          

  16. isostasyThe change in shape of an object in response to deformation (i.e., as a result of the application of a stress).

          

  17. thrust faultA gently dipping reverse fault; the hanging-wall block moves up the slope of the fault.

          

  18. strike-slip faultA fault in which one block slides horizontally past another (and therefore parallel to the strike line), so there is no relative vertical motion.

          

  19. shear stressThe push, pull, or shear that a material feels when subjected to a force; formally, the force applied per unit area over which the force acts.

          

  20. CompressionForce per unit area, or the ÒpushÓ acting on a material in cases where the push is the same in all directions.

          

  21. ductile deformationThe cracking and fracturing of a material subjected to stress.

          

  22. UpliftThe upward vertical movement of the ground surface, as occurs during mountain building.

          

  23. DomeFolded or arched layers with the shape of an overturned bowl.

          

  24. anticlineA fold with an arch-like shape in which the limbs dip away from the hinge.

          

  25. jointsA seam of minerals that forms when dissolved ions carried by water solutions precipitate in cracks.

          

  26. limb (of fold)The side of a fold, showing less curvature than at the hinge.

          

  27. normal faultA fault in which the hanging-wall block moves down the slope of the fault.

          

  28. global positioning system (GPS)The process in which mountains begin to collapse under their own weight and spread out laterally.

          

  29. DeformationA change in the shape, position, or orientation of a material, by bending, breaking, or flowing.

          

  30. fault scarpA small step on the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other.

          

  31. orogenA linear range of mountains.

          

  32. brittle deformationThe cracking and fracturing of a material subjected to stress.

          

  33. dipFolded or arched layers with the shape of an overturned bowl.

          

  34. StrikeThe compass trend of an imaginary horizontal line on a plane.

          

  35. HingeThe angle at which a layer tilts, relative to horizontal; the angle is measured in an imaginary vertical plane that trends perpendicular to the strike.

          

  36. orogenic collapseThe process in which mountains begin to collapse under their own weight and spread out laterally.

          

  37. cratonA long-lived block of durable continental crust commonly found in the stable interior of a continent.