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37 True/False questions

  1. equilibrium lineThe boundary between the zone of accumulation and the zone of ablation on a glacier.

          

  2. ice ageAn interval of time in which the climate was colder than it is today, glaciers occasionally advanced to cover large areas of the continents, and mountain glaciers grew; an ice age can include many glacials and interglacials.

          

  3. medial moraineA strip of sediment in the interior of a glacier, parallel to the flow direction of the glacier, formed by the lateral moraines of two merging glaciers.

          

  4. icebergAn interval of time in which the climate was colder than it is today, glaciers occasionally advanced to cover large areas of the continents, and mountain glaciers grew; an ice age can include many glacials and interglacials.

          

  5. arteA residual knife-edge ridge of rock that separates two adjacent cirques.

          

  6. lateral moraineThe end moraine at the farthest limit of glaciation.

          

  7. drumlinA streamlined, elongate hill formed when a glacier overrides glacial till.

          

  8. end moraineA sediment pile composed of till deposited by a glacier.

          

  9. patterned groundA strip of debris along the side margins of a glacier.

          

  10. temperate glacierA glacier that exists in regions where it is warm enough for liquid water to occur in films between the grains of ice.

          

  11. sea iceIce formed by the freezing of the surface of the sea.

          

  12. glacierIce formed by the freezing of the surface of the sea.

          

  13. continental glacierA glacier that exists in or adjacent to a mountainous region.

          

  14. terminal moraineA strip of sediment in the interior of a glacier, parallel to the flow direction of the glacier, formed by the lateral moraines of two merging glaciers.

          

  15. moraineA pointed mountain peak surrounded by at least three cirques.

          

  16. snowball EarthOur planet during periods in the Precambrian when its entire surface was ice covered.

          

  17. plastic deformationScratches or troughs carved into rock by the sediment embedded in ice at the base of a flowing glacier.

          

  18. crevasseA large crack that develops by brittle deformation in the top 60 m of a glacier.

          

  19. mountain glacierDry-bottom glacier.

          

  20. fjordA deep, glacially carved, U-shaped valley flooded by rising sea level.

          

  21. basal slidingA strip of sediment in the interior of a glacier, parallel to the flow direction of the glacier, formed by the lateral moraines of two merging glaciers.

          

  22. polar glacierA glacier that exists in or adjacent to a mountainous region.

          

  23. CirqueA residual knife-edge ridge of rock that separates two adjacent cirques.

          

  24. glacial striationsThe movement of a glacier's toe back toward the glacier's origin; glacial retreat occurs if the rate of ablation exceeds the rate of supply.

          

  25. hornA pointed mountain peak surrounded by at least three cirques.

          

  26. roche moutonnŽeA low, sinuous ridge of till that develops when the terminus (toe) of a glacier stalls in one position for a while.

          

  27. eskerA residual knife-edge ridge of rock that separates two adjacent cirques.

          

  28. erraticA boulder or cobble that was picked up by a glacier and deposited hundreds of kilometers away from the outcrop from which it detached.

          

  29. hanging valleyA glacially carved tributary valley whose floor lies at a higher elevation than the floor of the trunk valley.

          

  30. Milankovitch cyclesClimate cycles that occur over tens to hundreds of thousands of years, because of changes in Earth's orbit and tilt.

          

  31. glacial retreatThe movement of a glacier's toe back toward the glacier's origin; glacial retreat occurs if the rate of ablation exceeds the rate of supply.

          

  32. permafrostPermanently frozen ground.

          

  33. glacial tillSediment transported by flowing ice and deposited beneath a glacier or at its toe.

          

  34. kettle holeA circular depression in the ground made when a block of ice calves off the toe of a glacier, becomes buried by till, and later melts.

          

  35. loessLayers of fine-grained sediments deposited from the wind; large deposits of loess formed from fine-grained glacial sediment blown off outwash plains.

          

  36. glacial advanceThe forward movement of a glacier's toe when the supply of snow exceeds the rate of ablation.

          

  37. pluvial lakeSediment transported by flowing ice and deposited beneath a glacier or at its toe.