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  1. medial moraine
  2. sea ice
  3. loess
  4. hanging valley
  5. moraine
  6. ice age
  7. polar glacier
  8. lateral moraine
  9. Milankovitch cycles
  10. iceberg
  11. drumlin
  12. pluvial lake
  13. Cirque
  14. roche moutonnŽe
  15. fjord
  16. basal sliding
  17. equilibrium line
  18. mountain glacier
  19. glacial till
  20. glacial striations
  21. permafrost
  22. horn
  23. end moraine
  24. temperate glacier
  25. plastic deformation
  26. terminal moraine
  27. arte
  28. glacier
  29. patterned ground
  30. glacial retreat
  31. continental glacier
  32. crevasse
  33. glacial advance
  34. esker
  35. erratic
  36. kettle hole
  37. snowball Earth
  1. a A lake formed to the south of a continental glacier as a result of enhanced rainfall during an ice age.
  2. b The end moraine at the farthest limit of glaciation.
  3. c A deep, glacially carved, U-shaped valley flooded by rising sea level.
  4. d The movement of a glacier's toe back toward the glacier's origin; glacial retreat occurs if the rate of ablation exceeds the rate of supply.
  5. e A large crack that develops by brittle deformation in the top 60 m of a glacier.
  6. f Ice formed by the freezing of the surface of the sea.
  7. g The deformational process in which mineral grains behave like plastic and, when compressed or sheared, become flattened or elongate without cracking or breaking.
  8. h A strip of debris along the side margins of a glacier.
  9. i Our planet during periods in the Precambrian when its entire surface was ice covered.
  10. j A ridge of sorted sand and gravel that snakes across a ground moraine; the sediment of an esker was deposited in subglacial meltwater tunnels.
  11. k A circular depression in the ground made when a block of ice calves off the toe of a glacier, becomes buried by till, and later melts.
  12. l Dry-bottom glacier.
  13. m A streamlined, elongate hill formed when a glacier overrides glacial till.
  14. n A polar landscape in which the ground splits into pentagonal or hexagonal shapes.
  15. o The forward movement of a glacier's toe when the supply of snow exceeds the rate of ablation.
  16. p A glacially eroded hill that becomes elongate in the direction of flow and asymmetric; glacial rasping smoothes the upstream part of the hill into a gentle slope, while glacial plucking erodes the downstream edge into a steep slope.
  17. q A glacier that exists in regions where it is warm enough for liquid water to occur in films between the grains of ice.
  18. r Permanently frozen ground.
  19. s A glacially carved tributary valley whose floor lies at a higher elevation than the floor of the trunk valley.
  20. t A strip of sediment in the interior of a glacier, parallel to the flow direction of the glacier, formed by the lateral moraines of two merging glaciers.
  21. u Scratches or troughs carved into rock by the sediment embedded in ice at the base of a flowing glacier.
  22. v A sediment pile composed of till deposited by a glacier.
  23. w A residual knife-edge ridge of rock that separates two adjacent cirques.
  24. x The boundary between the zone of accumulation and the zone of ablation on a glacier.
  25. y A pointed mountain peak surrounded by at least three cirques.
  26. z A river or sheet of ice that slowly flows across the land surface and lasts all year long.
  27. aa Climate cycles that occur over tens to hundreds of thousands of years, because of changes in Earth's orbit and tilt.
  28. ab A vast sheet of ice that spreads over thousands of square kilometers of continental crust.
  29. ac The phenomenon in which meltwater accumulates at the base of a glacier, so that the mass of the glacier slides on a layer of water or on a slurry of water and sediment.
  30. ad A low, sinuous ridge of till that develops when the terminus (toe) of a glacier stalls in one position for a while.
  31. ae A large block of ice that calves off the front of a glacier and drops into the sea.
  32. af A glacier that exists in or adjacent to a mountainous region.
  33. ag A bowl-shaped depression carved by a glacier on the side of a mountain.
  34. ah Sediment transported by flowing ice and deposited beneath a glacier or at its toe.
  35. ai An interval of time in which the climate was colder than it is today, glaciers occasionally advanced to cover large areas of the continents, and mountain glaciers grew; an ice age can include many glacials and interglacials.
  36. aj Layers of fine-grained sediments deposited from the wind; large deposits of loess formed from fine-grained glacial sediment blown off outwash plains.
  37. ak A boulder or cobble that was picked up by a glacier and deposited hundreds of kilometers away from the outcrop from which it detached.