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39 True/False questions

  1. RapidsA reach of a stream in which water becomes particularly turbulent; as a consequence, waves develop on the surface of the stream.

          

  2. drainage divideA highland or ridge that separates one watershed from another

          

  3. bar(1) A sheet or elongate lens or mound of alluvium; (2) a unit of air pressure measurement approximately equal to 1 atm.

          

  4. headward erosionAn array of interconnecting streams that together drain an area.

          

  5. drainage basinA highland or ridge that separates one watershed from another

          

  6. superposed streamA stream whose geometry has been laid down on a rock structure and is not controlled by the structure.

          

  7. alluvial fanSorted sediment deposited by a stream.

          

  8. natural leveesThe lowest elevation a stream channel's floor can reach at a given locality.

          

  9. alluviumSorted sediment deposited by a stream.

          

  10. sheetwashA ribbon of water that flows in a channel.

          

  11. floodThe flat land on either side of a stream that becomes covered with water during a flood.

          

  12. base levelThe lowest elevation a stream channel's floor can reach at a given locality.

          

  13. recurrence intervalThe average time between successive geologic events.

          

  14. waterfallA place where water drops over an escarpment.

          

  15. ephemeral streamA stream that cuts across an uplifted mountain range; the stream must have existed before the range uplifted and must then have been able to downcut as fast as the land was rising.

          

  16. distributariesA smaller stream that flows into a larger stream.

          

  17. MeanderA trough dug into the ground surface by flowing water.

          

  18. competenceA snake-like curve along a stream's course.

          

  19. dischargeThe volume of water in a conduit or channel passing a point in one second.

          

  20. permanent streamA stream that flows year-round because its bed lies below the water table, or because more water is supplied from upstream than can infiltrate the ground.

          

  21. tributaryA smaller stream that flows into a larger stream.

          

  22. point bar(1) A sheet or elongate lens or mound of alluvium; (2) a unit of air pressure measurement approximately equal to 1 atm.

          

  23. longitudinal profileA gently sloping apron of sediment dropped by an ephemeral stream at the base of a mountain in arid or semi-arid regions.

          

  24. antecedent streamA stream that cuts across an uplifted mountain range; the stream must have existed before the range uplifted and must then have been able to downcut as fast as the land was rising.

          

  25. V-shaped valleyA valley whose cross-sectional shape resembles a V; the valley probably has a river running down the point of the V.

          

  26. channelA trough dug into the ground surface by flowing water.

          

  27. stream terraceA flat surface, underlain by alluvium, that borders a stream; terraces form when the stream cuts down into the alluvium that it had deposited previously.

          

  28. annual probabilityThe likelihood, expressed as a percentage, that an event (e.g., a flood of a given size) will happen in a given year.

          

  29. flash floodA flood that occurs during unusually intense rainfall or as the result of a dam collapse, during which the floodwaters rise very fast.

          

  30. deltaA ribbon of water that flows in a channel.

          

  31. seasonal floodA flood that occurs during unusually intense rainfall or as the result of a dam collapse, during which the floodwaters rise very fast.

          

  32. floodplainAn event during which the volume of water in a stream becomes so great that it covers areas outside the stream's normal channel.

          

  33. streamA ribbon of water that flows in a channel.

          

  34. drainage networkAn array of interconnecting streams that together drain an area.

          

  35. stream piracyThe situation in which headward erosion causes one stream to intersect the course of another, previously independent stream, so that the intersected stream starts to flow down the channel of the first stream.

          

  36. downcuttingThe process in which water flowing through a channel cuts into the substrate and deepens the channel relative to its surroundings.

          

  37. stream rejuvenationA flat surface, underlain by alluvium, that borders a stream; terraces form when the stream cuts down into the alluvium that it had deposited previously.

          

  38. capacityA reach of a stream in which water becomes particularly turbulent; as a consequence, waves develop on the surface of the stream.

          

  39. braided streamA stream whose geometry has been laid down on a rock structure and is not controlled by the structure.