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39 Multiple choice questions

  1. The process by which a stream channel lengthens up its slope as the flow of water increases.
  2. A pair of low ridges that appear on either side of a stream and develop as a result of the accumulation of sediment deposited naturally during flooding.
  3. An array of interconnecting streams that together drain an area.
  4. A highland or ridge that separates one watershed from another
  5. The likelihood, expressed as a percentage, that an event (e.g., a flood of a given size) will happen in a given year.
  6. Sorted sediment deposited by a stream.
  7. The process in which water flowing through a channel cuts into the substrate and deepens the channel relative to its surroundings.
  8. The fan of small streams formed where a river spreads out over its delta.
  9. An array of interconnecting streams that together drain an area.
  10. The total volume of sediment that a stream can carry.
  11. The lowest elevation a stream channel's floor can reach at a given locality.
  12. A stream whose geometry has been laid down on a rock structure and is not controlled by the structure.
  13. A reach of a stream in which water becomes particularly turbulent; as a consequence, waves develop on the surface of the stream.
  14. A valley whose cross-sectional shape resembles a V; the valley probably has a river running down the point of the V.
  15. The flat land on either side of a stream that becomes covered with water during a flood.
  16. Floods that appear almost every year during seasons when rainfall is heavy or when winter snows start to melt.
  17. A wedge of sediment formed at a river mouth when the running water of the stream enters standing water, the current slows, the stream loses competence, and sediment settles out.
  18. The ability of flowing water to carry sediment, as represented by the largest clast size that the stream can transport.
  19. A flood that occurs during unusually intense rainfall or as the result of a dam collapse, during which the floodwaters rise very fast.
  20. A smaller stream that flows into a larger stream.
  21. The situation in which headward erosion causes one stream to intersect the course of another, previously independent stream, so that the intersected stream starts to flow down the channel of the first stream.
  22. A sediment-choked stream consisting of entwined subchannels.
  23. A gently sloping apron of sediment dropped by an ephemeral stream at the base of a mountain in arid or semi-arid regions.
  24. A trough dug into the ground surface by flowing water.
  25. An event during which the volume of water in a stream becomes so great that it covers areas outside the stream's normal channel.
  26. A film of water less than a few millimeters thick that covers the ground surface during heavy rains.
  27. A stream whose bed lies above the water table, so that the stream flows only when the rate at which water enters the stream from rainfall or meltwater exceeds the rate at which water infiltrates the ground below.
  28. A flat surface, underlain by alluvium, that borders a stream; terraces form when the stream cuts down into the alluvium that it had deposited previously.
  29. A stream that cuts across an uplifted mountain range; the stream must have existed before the range uplifted and must then have been able to downcut as fast as the land was rising.
  30. A wedge-shaped deposit of sediment on the inside bank of a meander.
  31. A ribbon of water that flows in a channel.
  32. The renewed downcutting of a stream into a floodplain or peneplain, caused by a relative drop of the base level.
  33. (1) A sheet or elongate lens or mound of alluvium; (2) a unit of air pressure measurement approximately equal to 1 atm.
  34. A stream that flows year-round because its bed lies below the water table, or because more water is supplied from upstream than can infiltrate the ground.
  35. A cross-sectional image showing the variation in elevation along the length of a river.
  36. The volume of water in a conduit or channel passing a point in one second.
  37. A place where water drops over an escarpment.
  38. The average time between successive geologic events.
  39. A snake-like curve along a stream's course.