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34 Multiple choice questions

  1. Rock with high porosity and permeability, so it can contain an abundant amount of easily accessible oil.
  2. A rising bulbous dome of salt that bends up the adjacent layers of sedimentary rock.
  3. Gas or liquid fuel made from plant material (biomass). Examples of biofuel include alcohol (from fermented sugar), biodiesel from vegetable oil, and wood.
  4. Heat and electricity produced by using the internal heat of the Earth.
  5. Something that can be used to produce work; in a geologic context, a material (such as oil, coal, wind, flowing water) that can be used to produce energy.
  6. Rock containing native metals or a concentrated accumulation of ore minerals.
  7. Natural gas produced during the diagenesis of coal.
  8. The part of a nuclear power plant where the fission reactions occur.
  9. A chain-like or ring-like molecule made of hydrogen and carbon atoms; petroleum and natural gas are hydrocarbons.
  10. Sandstone reservoir rock in which less viscous oil and gas molecules have either escaped or been eaten by microbes, so that only tar remains.
  11. The narrow range of temperatures under which oil can form in a source rock.
  12. An organic sedimentary rock formed from plant debris.
  13. The waxy molecules into which the organic material in shale transforms on reaching about 100 ยกC. At higher temperatures, kerogen transforms into oil.
  14. In the context of hydrocarbons, a trap is a geologic configuration that accumulates and holds oil underground.
  15. An economically significant accumulation of ore.
  16. Compacted and partially decayed vegetation accumulating beneath a swamp.
  17. The trapping of heat in the Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which absorb infrared radiation; somewhat analogous to the effect of glass in a greenhouse.
  18. The minerals extracted from the Earth's upper crust for practical purposes.
  19. A solid composed almost entirely of atoms of metallic elements; it is generally opaque, shiny, smooth, and malleable, and can conduct electricity.
  20. A supply of useable material.
  21. An accumulation of accessible oil and gas.
  22. A measurement of the carbon content of coal; higher-rank coal forms at higher temperatures.
  23. Mineral material that precipitates from water and fills the spaces between grains, holding the grains together.
  24. The melting of the fuel rods in a nuclear reactor that occurs if the rate of fission becomes too fast and the fuel rods become too hot.
  25. The transformation, by human activity, of coal into various gases.
  26. The process during which chlorophyll-containing plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, form tissues, and expel oxygen back to the atmosphere.
  27. The total volume of empty space (pore space) in a material, usually expressed as a percentage.
  28. Shale containing kerogen.
  29. The period of human history, including our own, so named because the economy depends on oil.
  30. An ice-like solid consisting of water and methane.
  31. The capacity to do work.
  32. The degree to which a material allows fluids to pass through it via an interconnected network of pores and cracks.
  33. Radioactive materials produced in a nuclear reactor.
  34. An energy resource such as oil or coal that comes from organisms that lived long ago, and thus stores solar energy that reached the Earth then.