Essentials of Geology, 3: Chapter 4 Flashcards flashcards |

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assimilation

The process of magma contamination in which blocks of wall rock fall into a magma chamber and dissolve.

batholith

A vast composite, intrusive, igneous rock body up to several hundred kilometers long and 100 km wide, formed by the intrusion of numerous plutons in the same region.

Bowen's reaction series

The sequence in which different silicate minerals crystallize during the progressive cooling of a melt.

crystalline igneous rock

A rock that solidifies from a melt and consists of interlocking crystals.

dike

A tabular (wall-shaped) intrusion of rock that cuts across the layering of country rock.

extrusive igneous rock

Rock that forms by the freezing of lava above ground, after it flows or explodes out (extrudes) onto the surface and comes into contact with the atmosphere or ocean.

fractional crystallization

The process by which magma becomes progressively more silicic as it cools, because early-formed crystals settle out.

fragmental igneous rock

Fragments of igneous material that have been stuck together to form a coherent mass.

Geotherm

The change in temperature with depth in the Earth.

glassy igneous rock

Igneous rock consisting entirely of glass, or of tiny crystals surrounded by a glass matrix.

igneous rock

Rock that forms when hot molten rock (magma or lava) cools and freezes solid.

intrusive igneous rock

Rock formed by the freezing of magma underground.

Laccolith

A shallow igneous intrusion that has a blister-like shape.

lava

Molten rock that has flowed out onto the Earthร•s surface.

lava flow

Sheets or mounds of lava that flow onto the ground surface or sea floor in molten form and then solidify.

Magma

Molten rock beneath the Earthร•s surface.

obsidian

An igneous rock consisting of a solid mass of volcanic glass.

partial melting

The melting in a rock of the minerals with the lowest melting temperatures, while other minerals remain solid.

Pegmatite

A coarse-grained igneous rock containing crystals of up to tens of centimeters across and occurring in dike-shaped intrusions.

pluton

An irregular or blob-shaped intrusion; can range in size from tens of meters across to tens of kilometers across.

pumice

A glassy igneous rock that forms from felsic frothy lava and contains abundant (over 50%) pore space.

pyroclastic rock

Rock made from fragments blown out of a volcano during an explosion that were then packed or welded together.

scoria

A glassy mafic igneous rock containing abundant air-filled holes.

sill

A nearly horizontal table-top-shaped tabular intrusion that occurs between the layers of country rock.

Stoping

A process by which magma intrudes; blocks of wall rock break off and then sink into the magma.

Tuff

A pyroclastic igneous rock composed of volcanic ash and fragmented pumice, formed when accumulations of the debris cement together.

vesicle

Open holes in igneous rock formed by the preservation of bubbles in magma as the magma cools into solid rock.

volcanic ash

Tiny glass shards formed when a fine spray of exploded lava freezes instantly upon contact with the atmosphere.

volcanic breccias

A rock composed of angular chunks of volcanic debris that have been cemented together.

volcano

(1) A vent from which melt from inside the Earth spews out onto the planetร•s surface; (2) a mountain formed by the accumulation of extrusive volcanic rock.

xenolith

A relict of wall rock surrounded by intrusive rock when the intrusive rock freezes.

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