The process of magma contamination in which blocks of wall rock fall into a magma chamber and dissolve.
A vast composite, intrusive, igneous rock body up to several hundred kilometers long and 100 km wide, formed by the intrusion of numerous plutons in the same region.
Bowen's reaction series
The sequence in which different silicate minerals crystallize during the progressive cooling of a melt.
extrusive igneous rock
Rock that forms by the freezing of lava above ground, after it flows or explodes out (extrudes) onto the surface and comes into contact with the atmosphere or ocean.
The process by which magma becomes progressively more silicic as it cools, because early-formed crystals settle out.
fragmental igneous rock
Fragments of igneous material that have been stuck together to form a coherent mass.
glassy igneous rock
Igneous rock consisting entirely of glass, or of tiny crystals surrounded by a glass matrix.
Sheets or mounds of lava that flow onto the ground surface or sea floor in molten form and then solidify.
The melting in a rock of the minerals with the lowest melting temperatures, while other minerals remain solid.
A coarse-grained igneous rock containing crystals of up to tens of centimeters across and occurring in dike-shaped intrusions.
An irregular or blob-shaped intrusion; can range in size from tens of meters across to tens of kilometers across.
A glassy igneous rock that forms from felsic frothy lava and contains abundant (over 50%) pore space.
Rock made from fragments blown out of a volcano during an explosion that were then packed or welded together.
A nearly horizontal table-top-shaped tabular intrusion that occurs between the layers of country rock.
A process by which magma intrudes; blocks of wall rock break off and then sink into the magma.
A pyroclastic igneous rock composed of volcanic ash and fragmented pumice, formed when accumulations of the debris cement together.
Open holes in igneous rock formed by the preservation of bubbles in magma as the magma cools into solid rock.
Tiny glass shards formed when a fine spray of exploded lava freezes instantly upon contact with the atmosphere.
A rock composed of angular chunks of volcanic debris that have been cemented together.
(1) A vent from which melt from inside the Earth spews out onto the planetรs surface; (2) a mountain formed by the accumulation of extrusive volcanic rock.