ESCI 111 Test 3 flashcards |

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What type of volcano is typically the largest?
A. shield volcano
B. Cinder Cones
C. Composite Volcano

A. shield volcano

This type of magma, with a silica content of about 70 percent, has the greatest tendency to form pyroclastics.
A. Rhyolitic
B. Andesitic
C. migmatic
D. Basaltic

A. Rhyolitic

__________ cones, such as Sunset Crater, Arizona, tend to have very steep slopes.
A. Shield
B. Cinder
C. Composite

B. Cinder

What type of intrusive feature is tabular with concordant orientation with surrounding country rock?
A. dike
B. sill
C. tocks
D. batholiths

B. sill

Exemplified by the Hawaiian Islands, this type of volcano tends to be the largest on Earth.
A. cinder cones
B. shield volcanoes
C. Composite volcanoes

B. shield volcanoes

An intrusive wall of igneous rock cutting across the surrounding country rocks is called?
A. dike
B. sill
C. laccolith
D. batholith

A. dike

Intrusive igneous bodies are classified according to their shape and orientation with respect to the host rock.
A. True
B. False

A. True

An intrusive feature that form like sill but from viscous magma which collects as lens-shaped
masses that arch the overlying strata is ________
A. Dike
B. Sill
C. laccolith
D. Batholith

C. laccolith

Which one of the following is NOT a primary factor of magma that directly determines the nature of a volcanic eruption?
A. Temperature of magma
B. Amount of dissolved gases
C. Chemical composition of magma
D. Volume

D. Volume

A volcano that takes the shape of a broad, domed structure is called a ______ volcano.
A. shield
B. Cinder
C. Composite

A. shield

What type of volcano produces the most violent eruptions?
A. Shield Volcano
B. Cinder Cone
C. Composite cone

C. Composite cone

What type of volcano is composed of
interbedded lavas and pyroclastic deposits?
A. Shield Volcano
B. Cinder Cone
C. Composite cone

C. Composite cone

What type of volcano is typically the
smallest?
A. Shield Volcano
B. Cinder Cone
C. Composite cone

B. Cinder Cone

What type of volcano has the steepest slopes?
A. Cinder cone
B. Shield Volcano
C. Composite Volcano

A. Cinder cone

What type of volcano is composed mostly of
basaltic lava flows?
A. Cinder cone
B. Shield Volcano
C. Composite Volcano

B. Shield Volcano

What type of volcano may produce a nuรฉe
ardente or lahar?
A. Cinder cone
B. Shield Volcano
C. Composite Volcano

C. Composite Volcano

This type of magma, with about a 60 percent
silica content, tends to form composite cones.
A. Rhyolitic
B. Andesitic
C. Migmatic
D. Basaltic

B. Andesitic

Magmas that produce __________ rock
contain about 50 percent silica and tend to be
quite __________.
A. basaltic; fluid
B. rhyolitic, viscous
C. rhyolitic: fluid
D. basaltic: viscous

A. basaltic; fluid

What is the texture of Obsidian igneous rock?
A. Aphanitic texture
B. Glassy texture
C. porphyritic texture
D. Vesicular texture

B. Glassy texture

Igneous rocks that form from the last minerals to
crystallize from magma will have a(n) __________
composition consisting of quartz, potassium feldspar,
and sodium-rich plagioclase feldspar.
A. andesitc (intermediate)
B. Basaltic (mafic)
C. Granitic (felsic)
D. mafic (felsic)

C. Granitic (felsic)

Which one of the following is NOT a possible
product of a volcanic eruption?
A. Ash
B. pyroclastic debris
C. Cinder
D. marble

D. marble

Igneous rocks are classified based on their
texture and mineral composition.
A. True
B. False

A. True

In a rock with a porphyritic texture, the large
crystals are referred to as __________.
A. Groundmass
B. Phenocrysts
C. Erratics
D. Orthoclase

B. Phenocrysts

Igneous rock originates when hot, molten
material called __________ cools and
crystallizes.
A. skarn
B. firn
C. magma
D. sediment

C. magma

When the minerals in an igneous rock cannot
be identified, the composition can be
estimated based on the percentage of
phenocrysts present in the rock.
A. True
B. False

B. False

Igneous rocks rich in dark silicate minerals
with about 50 percent silica are said to have
a(n) __________ composition.
A. Aphanitic
B. Basaltic
C. Rhyolitic
D. granitic

B. Basaltic

Igneous rocks that form when lava solidifies
are classified as extrusive or volcanic
igneous rocks.
A. True
B. False

A. True

Basalt makes up the ocean crust as well as
lava flows and volcanic structures on land.
A. True
B. False

A. True

Rocks that contain voids left by gases that
escape as lava solidifies are said to exhibit
a(n) __________ texture.
A. vesicular
B. Phaneritic
C. porphyritic
D. Glassy

A. vesicular

Which one of the following greatly affects
both the size and arrangement of mineral
crystals in an igneous rock?
A. Rate of cooling of the magma or lava
B. Composition of the surrounding the magma
C. Rate of tectonic uplift
D. Rate of Cooling of the lava

A. Rate of cooling of the magma or lava

Detrital sedimentary rocks are made primarily
of the products of mechanical weathering.
A. True
B. False

B. False

Which common mineral found in igneous rocks
is most abundant in detrital sedimentary rocks?
A. amphibole
B. biotite
C. quartz
D. plagioclase feldspar

C. quartz

The common name for sediment consisting of
particles between 1/16 mm and 2 mm is ______.
A. clay
B. silt
C. cobble
D. sand

D. sand

Which sedimentary rock consists of materials
that originated and were transported as solid
particles?
A. sandstone
B. rock salt
C. chert
D. travertine

A. sandstone

Compaction and cementation are examples of
this process.
A. lithification
B. crystallization
C. weathering
D. Fusion

A. lithification

Which one of the following is NOT a variety of
limestone?
A. Chalk
B. travertine
C. coquina
D. chert

A. Chalk

Angular pieces in a detrital sedimentary rock
indicates the particles were not transported very
far from their source prior to deposition.
A. True
B. False

A. True

Which rock type is most likely associated with a
high-energy environment such as a turbulent
stream?
A. conglomerate
B. shale
C. chert
D. rock salt

A. conglomerate

Which accumulation of sediment would most
likely exhibit good cross-bedding?
A. landslide debris
B. cave deposits of travertine limestone
C. windblown sand (sand dune)
D. salt flats in a desert basin

C. windblown sand (sand dune)

Rock salt and rock gypsum are examples of
__________ sedimentary rocks.
A. detrital
B. biochemical
C. evaporite

C. evaporite

Which sedimentary rock listed below has a
biochemical origin?
A. rock gypsum
B. travertine
C. coquina
D. shale

C. coquina

Geologists use __________ to distinguish
among detrital sedimentary rocks.
A. method of formation
B. color
C. particle size
D. the location of the source materials

C. particle size

The presence of abundant feldspar in a
sedimentary rock suggests that advanced stages of
chemical weathering have taken place.
A. True
B. false

B. false

Which one of the following is NOT a
sedimentary structure or feature that helps
geologists interpret past geological conditions?
A. vesicles
B. mud crack
C. cross bedding
D. particle sorting

A. vesicles

Agate, jasper, and flint are all forms of chert.
A. True
B. False

A. True

The most common minerals in detrital
sedimentary rocks are __________.
A. clay and quartz
B. clay and limonite
C. potassium feldspar and quartz
D. limonite and hematite
E. olivine and quartz

A. clay and quartz

Limestone is composed chiefly of the mineral:
A. calcite
B. halite
C. feldspar
D. quartz

A. calcite

Sedimentary rocks form when the products of
_____ are transported to a location where
they are deposited and eventually _____ into solid
rock.
A. melting; crystallized
B. deposition; eroded
C. crystallization; metamorphosed
D. tectonism; weathered
E. weathering; lithified

E. weathering; lithified

Evaporites are examples of biochemical
sedimentary rocks.
A. True
B. False

B. False

Sediments precipitated by processes such as
temperature change, evaporation, and chemical
activity are called biochemical sediments.
A. True
B. False

B. False

The most abundant chemical sedimentary rock
is ____.
A. chert
B. rock salt
C. coquina
D. traverstine
E. none of the above

E. none of the above

A rock with angular, gravel-sized particles is
A. Breccia
B. conglomerate
C. Travertine
D. shale
E. arkose.

B. conglomerate

A rock with jasper and agate as examples
A. Breccia
B. chert
C. shale
D. Chalk
E. Travertine

B. chert

A feldspar rich sandstone is
A. Breccia
B. conglomerate
C. arkose
D. Travertine
E. shale

C. arkose

Limestone composed of shell fragments is
A. Rock salt
B. arkose
C. chert
D. coquina
E. agate

D. coquina

An evaporite rock rich in halite
A. Rock salt
B. arkose
C. chert
D. coquina
E. agate

A. Rock salt

A detrital or clastic rock rick in silt and claysized
particles is
A. Breccia
B. conglomerate
C. Travertine
D. shale
E. arkose.

D. shale

A rock similar to breccia, except it has rounded
particles
A. Breccia
B. conglomerate
C. Travertine
D. shale
E. arkose.

B. conglomerate

Which list shows magmas in order of INCREASING viscosity?
A. rhyolite, andesite, basalt
B. andesite, basalt, rhyolite
C. basalt, rhyolite, andesite
D. basalt, andesite, rhyolite
E. rhyolite, basalt, andesite

D. basalt, andesite, rhyolite

A rock with an aphanitic texture indicates the parent magma
A. was generated at a divergent plate margin.
B. cooled slowly.
C. cooled rapidly.
D. experienced two periods of cooling, first slow and then fast.
E. formed at convergent plate margins.

C. cooled rapidly.

An igneous rock consisting of broken fragments of crystals, shards of quenched magma, and rock fragments has a
A. pyroclastic texture.
B. phaneritic texture.
C. glassy texture.
D. phanitic texture.
E. porphyritic texture.

A. pyroclastic texture.

Andesite volcanoes occur most frequently
A. along continental margins.
B. on stable platforms.
C. in linear chains of volcanic islands like Hawaii.
D. along continental rift zones.
E. along mid-oceanic ridges.

A. along continental margins.

Which of the following is NOT an igneous intrusion?
A. laccolith
B. dike
C. sill
D. stock
E. pressure ridge

E. pressure ridge

The surface of a lava flow, characterized by a jumbled mass of angular blocks, is referred to as:
A. splatter joints.
B. laccolith.
C. pahoehoe.
D. pressure ridges.
E. aa.

E. aa.

Silicic magma typically produces
A. spatter cones.
B. composite volcanoes.
C. cinder cones.
D. shield volcanoes.
E. fissure eruptions.

B. composite volcanoes.

The cooling of basalt often produces vertical fractures due to shrinkage, and results in hexagonal prisms of rock. These fractures are called
A. fissures.
B. faults.
C. pahoehoes.
D. pressure ridges.
E. columnar joints.

E. columnar joints.

A narrow, tabular body of intrusive rock that cuts across the structures of the surrounding rock is termed
A. stock.
B. sill.
C. dike.
D. laccolith.
E. batholith.

C. dike.

Volcanic glass is produced by
A. slow cooling.
B. rapid cooling.
C. any two different rates of cooling.
D. rapid cooling followed by slow cooling.
E. slow cooling followed by rapid cooling.

B. rapid cooling.

The rate of crystallization of an igneous rock will greatly influence its
A. color.
B. grain size.
C. density.
D. chemical composition.
E. all of the above

B. grain size.

Sedimentary rocks
A. form by compaction and cementation of loose sediment.
B. are widespread on the continents and ocean floor.
C. are common on the stable platforms of all continents.
D. may be found in folded layers in mountain belts.
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

The mineral calcite (CaCO3) is the major constituent of
A. limestone.
B. dolomite.
C. shale.
D. coal.
E. sandstone.

A. limestone.

Which of the following is the most abundant nonclastic rock (deposited by chemical or organic means)?
A. marine limestone
B. rock salt
C. dolostone
D. gypsum
E. dripstone

A. marine limestone

Which of the following rocks is NON-CLASTIC Sedimentary rock?
A. rock salt
B. conglomerate
C. siltstone
D. sandstone
E. shale

A. rock salt

The rock most unrelated to the others is
A. sandstone.
B. conglomerate.
C. mudstone.
D. limestone.
E. shale.

D. limestone.

Transportation and deposition of sediment by turbidity currents is commonly indicated by
A. mud cracks.
B. cross-bedding.
C. graded bedding.
D ripple marks.
E. horizontal laminae.

C. graded bedding.

Cross-bedding is commonly found in
A. coal.
B. shale.
C. sandstone.
D. rock gypsum.
E. rock salt.

C. sandstone.

Which of the following would NOT be expected in sedimentary rocks?
A. fossils
B. vesicles
C. ripple marks
D. mud cracks

B. vesicles

The material from which chemically-precipitated sedimentary rocks are made is transported to the place of deposition
A. by wind.
B. as silt.
C. as sediment particles.
D. as clastic particles.
E. in solution.

E. in solution.

The shoreline sedimentary environment includes all but
A. deltas.
B. beaches.
C. flood plains.
D. barrier islands.
E. lagoons.

C. flood plains.

Well-sorted, fine-grained sand deposited in cross-bedded units several tens of feet thick would likely represent which of the following environments?
A. deep marine
B. eolian
C. fluvial
D. shallow marine
E. beach

B. eolian

Fossil remains of ancient organisms are most commonly found in
A. basalt.
B. granite.
C. metamorphic rocks.
D. gypsum.
E. sedimentary rocks.

E. sedimentary rocks.

Which of the following is not the result of vent eruption?
A. Shield volcano
B. Cinder cone
C. Strato-volcano
D. Volcanic neck
E. Pillow basalt

E. Pillow basalt

Lithification process involving the transformation of organic materials into solid carbon called coal is known as:
A. Cementation
B. Compaction
C. Weathering
D. Re-crystallization
E. Magmatism

D. Re-crystallization

Which of the following particles in sedimentary rocks is smallest in size?
A. Silt
B. Clay
C. Gravel
D. Sand

B. Clay

Fine dark-colored layers in valves are often deposited in
A. Spring
B. Summer
C. Winter
D. Fall

A. Spring

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