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If all land based ice on earth was to melt, how much would sea level rise by approximately?


Jacobshavn Isbra, a glacier in Greenland, has done what in the last few decades?

Doubled in Speed

Define Ice Sheet

A Seasonal ice covering on the polar oceans with a very high surface albedo.

What would likely be found in ground water associated with agricultural land use?


What system is commonly used to describe the colour of a soil?

Munsell Colour Chart

Approximately what % of the earth is covered in glaciers?


At any one time about how many volcanoes are actively erupting on land on planet earth?


Spatial data are represented by ...

Raster or Vector

Data output from a GIS

Is cartography

On approaching a coastline, how are the amplitude and propagation speed of a tsunami generally affected?

The amplitude increases and the propagation speed decreases.

Global Thermohaline Circulation is driven by

Salt, Heat and Wind

Average depth of the pacific ocean is deeper than the average of other main oceans because...

Of Widespread subduction of the ocean floor.

Zealand is at the junction of two major surface current systems, what are they?

Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and the Subtropical Gyre or Inflow

The sinking of dense water for the Thermohaline Circulation occurs mainly...

Around Antarctica and the North Atlantic Ocean

Submarine Fans are fed mainly by sediment delivered from land via...

Turbidity Currents

NZ is part of a vast submarine landscape that originated from...

The super continent of Gondwana

During the last ice age or glaciation 18000 years ago did the sea level drop by 120m?


The production of plant plankton or phytoplankton int he ocean relies mainly on...

Light, Nutrients and Ocean Mixing

Which environment would improve the likelihood of an organism being included in the fossil record?

The dry savannah.
A Swamp.
A Desert
Fossils are equally likely to be found in all these environments

A Swamp

Which of the following does Evolution not explain?

a) The complexity of bodies
b) The Tree of life
c) The origin of life
d) The diversity of life on earth

c) The origin of life

Define Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

Rigid lithospheric plates move over weaker asthenospheric mantle

The ............... is an example of an active, continent-continent collision

a) Arabian Peninsula slamming into North Africa under the red sea
b) Westward movement of the South American plate over the Nazca Plate
c) Northern movement of Baja California and a sliver of western California toward the Hawaiian Islands
d) Northward Movement of India into Eurasia

d) Northward movement of India into Eurasia

Where would you drill to recover samples of the oldest basalts of the oceanic crust, which are jurassic in age?

Oceanic Side of the Aleutian Trench

Linear, Magnetic patterns associated with mid ocean ridges are configured as?

Normal and reversed magnetised strips roughly parallel to the ridge

Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earths lithospheric plates?

a) Gravitational attractive forces of the sun and moon
b) Electrical and magnetic fields localised in the inner core
c) export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
d) swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core

d) swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core

Evolution is driven by blind chance T/F


Glaciers grow during the winter and melt away entirely during the summer T/F


The greenland ice sheet experiences significant surface melting each summer T/F


Antarctic Ice Sheets experience significant surface melting each summer T/F


The West Antarctic Ice Sheet may be vulnerable to collapse T/F


Sea Level would not occur as a direct result of melting sea ice T/F


Wind waves always break when the water depth is the same as the wave height T/F


Basalt magma that is low in silica content and hot tends to build tall cone volcanoes T/F


Ruapehu is NZ largest volcano T/F


What is NZ largest volcano?

Taupo Caldera

Without volcanism there would be no life on earth T/F


The only place you can study mid ocean ridge volcanism on land is Iceland T/F


Life has had nothing to do with the development of the earths environment T/F


Despite the increase in solar luminosity Gaia has held the average global temperature more or less constant T/F


Tropical Cyclones get their energy from the oceans through latent heat release T/F


What is the main driver of atmospheric processes?

The Sun

What causes the Coriolis Force?

Earths Rotation

What is the Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate? in degrees per km?

9.8 degrees per km

In which major atmospheric circulation is NZ?


Define Gaia Hypothesis

All organisms on earth closely integrated to form a self regulating complex system

List three possible ways that s shell can be preserved in the fossil record


Give the two types of plate boundary seen in NZ


Coast Definition

Inland Limit....

Top of Tidal Zone

Coast Definition

Seaward Limit...

Where wind waves first interact with the sea floor

Wave Period (T)

Time between crests

Wavelength (L)

Distance between crests

Three types of waves

Wind generated waves (period T < 20 seconds)
Infragravity waves (T = 20 sec. - 5 minutes)
Long period waves ( T > 5 minutes)

Sea Waves are...

waves generated by the wind blowing now, and in the recent past, in the area of observation.

Swell waves are...

waves which have travelled into the area of observation after having been generated by previous winds in other areas.
These waves may travel thousands of kilometres from their origin before dying away. There may be swell present even if the wind is calm and there are no 'sea' waves.

Wind Waves are dependant on...

โ€ข Fetch
โ€ข Wind Speed
โ€ข Storm/Wind Duration

Waves classified on the basis of ______ and _______

Height & Period

3 types of breaking waves

(i) surging
(ii) spilling
(iii) plunging

Sea level is expected to rise _m by 2100, which will increase coastal risks


Coastal flooding associated with storm surge can be caused by

- high spring tides
- low atmospheric pressure
- wind set-up
- wave run-up
- freshwater flooding

Three reasons for biases in the fossil record

Not all environments preserve fossils well

Not all organisms are capable of being preserved

Low numbers of individuals / restricted geographic range reduces the likelyhood of preservation

Other ways of Fossils being preserved

Insects in amber

Mammoths in ice

Carbon Film

Incased in Ice

Human Classification


Human Classification


Human Classification


Human Classification


Human Classification


Human Classification


Human Classification



Line between source and wavefront showing path of wave: perpendicular to wavefront

Location of volcanoes on earth

Many volcanoes are associated with, and help define, the tectonic plates on Earth

The best place to study mid-ocean ridges

(at the moment): Iceland

Convergent/Subduction zones create what type of volcanism

Explosive eruptions

Hot spots

Hotspots: the idea is that there is a supply of magma from a plume, fixed in the Earth's mantle, that 'burns' a hole in the plate as it moves across the plume

Hawaiian Islands

โ€ขShow an age progression from SE to NW
โ€ขYoungest activity at SE end (e.g. Loihi)
โ€ขIslands subsiding with time as they move away from the heat source

Why do volcanoes occur at subduction zones?

โ€ขVolcanoes occur because water released from the downgoing oceanic slab triggers melting; the melt then rises to the surface because it is lighter than the surrounding rocks. A lot of magma never even makes it to the surface.

What is GIS?

A system which uses information that is geographic/spatial

Why use a GIS

-Find spatial relationships
-Identify process from spatial pattern; e.g. spatial autocorrelation
-Way finding
-Design better processes

GIS Points

Points: X & Y Locations

GIS Line

Line: Connected X & Y Locations

GIS Polygon

Polygon: Connected X & Y Locations that contain attribute information.


A row and column matrix (pixels) of X & Y space with attribute information associated with each pixel is considered a raster layer type.

GIS Attribute Data

Works with the spatial data to make GIS more powerful

GIS Vector:

Points, lines and polygons (spatial data) associated with databases of attributes (attribute data) are considered vector layer types.

GIS Stands for...

Geographic Information System

Geostrophic winds

โ€ข Deflected winds >1km above the surface
โ€ข Speed is proportional to pressure gradient and strength of coriolis effect
โ€ข Airflow is anticlockwise around low pressure in the N hemisphere and the converse for the S hemisphere

In the Southern hemisphere the deflection is to the ______ due to the Coriolis effect


In the Northern hemisphere the deflection is to the ______ due to the Coriolis effect


Cold-cored cyclones will _______ with height


Warm-cored cyclones will ______ with height.


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