ESCI 111 Quiz 7 flashcards |

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________, a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most abundant mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks.

Quartz

Compaction is a very important part of the lithification process for which of the following sediments?

Mud

A cherty limestone would contain which major constituents?

silica; calcite

Which of the following best describes bedded gypsum and halite?

evaporates; chemical, sedimentary rocks

________ cement produces bright-red and yellow colors in some sandstone.

Iron oxide

What is probably the single most important, original, depositional feature in sedimentary rocks?

bedding or stratification

Studies of deep-sea sediment cores have contributed greatly to scientific knowledge of ________.

climatic changes during the last four million years

What is the main difference between a conglomerate and a sedimentary breccia?

Breccia clasts are angular; conglomerate clasts are rounded.

Which type of limestone consists mainly of tiny, marine fossils composed of calcite?

chalk

Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) based on the ________.

grain sizes of the detrital particles

Which of the following applies to the basic constituents of halite, gypsum, and sylvite?

transported as dissolved ions; deposited by evaporation

Flint, chert, and jasper are microcrystalline forms of ________.

quartz (SiO2)

Sedimentary rocks account for about what percentage of the Earth's outermost 10 kilometers of rock (first percentage). Also, what percentage of the Earth's continental area is covered by sedimentary rocks (second percentage)?

5%; 75%

Which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have originally been deposited by fast-moving streams?

conglomerate

________ is a form of calcium carbonate.

Travertine

Oolitic limestone is most likely to form in what type of depositional environment?

shallow, clear, marine waters with vigorous current activity

What is the chemical formula for dolomite, the major mineral in dolostones?

CaMg(CO3)2

Coal beds originate in ________.

freshwater coastal swamps and bogs

Which characteristic is absolutely necessary for a sedimentary rock to have potential as a possible reservoir rock for oil or gas?

high porosity

Nonclastic textures are common in which of the following sedimentary rocks?

limestones

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