ESCI 111 Quiz 4 flashcards |

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Lava flows are typically finer grained than intrusive igneous rocks. Why?

The extrusive magma cools quickly so the mineral grains do not have time to grow.

Which magma is most likely to quench (congeal) to a natural glass?

highly viscous; cools quickly

The sizes, shapes, and arrangements of mineral grains in an igneous rock is known as ________.

texture

________ magma cools and consolidates without growth of mineral grains.

glassy

________ mineral grains are of roughly equal size and coarse enough to be seen without a microscope or magnifying glass.

phaneritic

________ rock has two or more distinctly different-sized populations of mineral grains.

porphyritic

________ a magnifying glass or microscope is needed to see individual mineral grains.

aphanitic

A ________ is an open cavity in a volcanic rock that was filled by a gas bubble when the lava was still mainly liquid.

vesicle

Consider the Bowen's reaction series. Which mineral would you expect to see as a phenocryst in a porphyritic basalt?

olivine

Which of the following igneous rocks exhibit aphanitic texture?

andesite, rhyolite

________ is a volcanic rock that is extremely vesicular and glassy.

Pumice

________ is composed mainly of ferromagnesian minerals.

Peridotite

________ is characterized by very coarse mineral grains?

Pegmatite

A (an) ________ texture represents a single, long period of cooling and crystallization.

Phaneritic

________ has the same mineral composition as andesite.

Diorite

Which of the following best describes an aphanitic texture?

The rock is crystalline; mineral grains are too small to be visible without a magnifying lens or microscope.

A ________ texture would be most unlikely to occur in an extrusive igneous rock.

phaneritic

________ is named for a prominent, volcanic mountain range in western South America.

Andesite

________ is the dominant lava erupted from volcanoes on Hawaii and Iceland.

Basalt

The last minerals to crystallize on Bowen's Reaction Series result in igneous rocks with a ________ composition.

felsic

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