ESCI 111 Quiz 13 flashcards |

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Water depths and seafloor topography are now routinely determined by ________.

ship-mounted echo sounders

Geologically, ________ are actually submerged parts of the continents.

continental shelves

The ________ lies at the base of the continental slope.

continental rise

Which one of the following would most likely be covered with thick turbidite layers?

deep-sea fan at the base of a continental slope

Seamounts ________.

are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor

"Black smokers" are associated with ________.

all of these

The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed the ________.

continental shelf

Seafloor spreading occurs along relatively narrow areas at the crests of oceanic ridges called ________.

rift zones

Oceanic ridges are elevated compared to the surrounding ocean floor because ________.

ly formed lithosphere is hotter and therefore less dense than the surrounding rocks

Where in the oceans are biological communities thriving without sunlight?

around seafloor hot spring vents

________ develop where oceanic lithosphere bends downward and sinks into the mantle.

Deep ocean trenches

Spreading rates of ________ are common along the Mid-Atlantic and the Mid-Indian ridges.

1 to 5 centimeters per year

Basaltic rocks of the oceanic crust are altered by heated seawater moving through fractures in a process known as ________.

hydrothermal metamorphism

East Africa, the Rhine Valley, and the Baikal in Siberia are all examples of ________.

continental rifts

________ is the oceanward edge of a continental shelf.

The top of the continental slope

Plate subduction occurs because the ________, not the oceanic crust, is denser than the underlying asthenosphere.

lithospheric mantle

An echo sounder operates by measuring the time required for a ________.

sound pulse to travel from a ship to the seafloor and back

Oceans cover approximately ________ of Earth's surface area.

70%

Which one of the following would typically have the widest continental shelf?

A tectonically passive, trailing continental margin

Which one of the following statements concerning submarine canyons is not true?

They were cut by streams and rivers during the Pleistocene when sea level had dropped to the base of the continental slope.

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