ESCI 111 Quiz 12 flashcards |

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The P-wave shadow zone is largely the result of ________.

refraction of P waves crossing the mantle-outer core boundary

________ are thought to be similar in composition to Earth's mantle.

Stony meteorites

The Earth's magnetic field originates by ________.

weak electrical currents associated with fluid motions in the outer core

The Earth's magnetic field ________.

is a self-generating and self-reversing dynamo in the outer core

________ upper part of the lithosphere includes this layer.

crust

________ very dense, solidified, iron-rich alloy.

inner core

________ Earth's magnetic field originates in this layer.

outer core

________ transmits P waves but not S waves.

outer core

________ the top of this layer is marked by the Mohorovicic discontinuity.

mantle

Which of the following best characterizes how the diameter of Earth's core and the nature of the outer core were discovered?

by analysis of the P-wave and S-wave shadow zones

________ discovered the crust-mantle seismic discontinuity in ________.

Andrija Mohorovicic; 1909

The fact that ________ is good evidence for a solidified, inner core.

P waves are faster in the inner core than in the outer core

Dense forms of ________ are probably major components of the inner core.

crystalline iron and nickel

The ________ of the Earth does not transmit S waves.

outer core

The ________ is the seismic discontinuity that forms the boundary between the crust and mantle.

Moho

The ________ of the Earth is enriched in the elements silicon, potassium, sodium, and aluminum compared to the most common types of stony meteorites.

crust

_______ are much more abundant in mantle rocks than in crustal rocks.

Magnesium silicates

______ is probably closest in chemical composition to the upper mantle.

Peridotite

______ are closest to the average chemical composition of the oceanic crust.

Basalt and gabbro

Which one of the following best characterizes the asthenosphere?

a zone of softened peridotite in the upper mantle

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