ESCI 111 Quiz 11 flashcards |

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The elastic rebound theory for the origin of earthquakes was first proposed by ________ following the ________ earthquake.

Reid; 1906, San Francisco

Which one of the following statements concerning foci and epicenters is correct?

The epicenter is at the surface directly above the focus where the earthquake initiates.

Which one of the following is true regarding tsunamis?

They occur in the open ocean, wavelengths are many miles or kilometers and wave heights are only a few feet.

Which of the following foundation materials is most stable during earthquake shaking?

bedrock

The ________ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy released. It does not directly measure the extent of building damage.

Richter

Why was the Marina District, San Francisco, heavily damaged in the 1906 and 1989 quakes?

Liquefaction and foundation failures were common.

The ________ is directly related to the Richter earthquake-magnitude rating.

amplitude of the seismic waves

Approximately how often do locked segments of the San Andreas Fault (California) break, resulting in major earthquakes?

once every hundred and fifty years

________ refers to the tendency for a foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and fail mechanically during earthquake shaking.

Liquefaction

The ________ is the point of origination for an earthquake.

focus

Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5?

30 times

________ is a widely accepted explanation for the mechanism that generates earthquakes.

Reid's elastic rebound theory

P waves ________.

are faster than S waves and surface waves

The Mercalli Scale is a scale from ________.

I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake

What are the smaller magnitude quakes that follow a major earthquake?

aftershocks

The largest lateral, ground displacement is produced by ________.

horizontally vibrating surface waves

The ________ is used to record ground shaking and the earthquake-magnitude scale was invented by ________.

seismograph; Richter

The epicenter of an earthquake is the ________.

surface location directly above the point where the fault slip initiates

Energy is stored in rocks adjacent to the site of a future earthquake as ________.

elastic strain

________ was struck by three major earthquakes during the winter and spring months of the years 1811-1812.

Madrid, Missouri

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