ESCI 111 Final Exam flashcards |

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During metamorphism, elongated crystals tend to recrystallize with an orientation that is ________ to the direction of greatest stress.
A. parallel
B. perpendicular
C. directed
D. none of the above

B. perpendicular

Which one of these metamorphic rocks is composed predominantly of a single mineral?
A. garnet-mica schist
B. gneiss
C. marble
D. bauxite

C. marble

Rocks subjected to intense heat when they are intruded by magma undergo a process called
A. tectonic metamorphism
B. searing
C. contact metamorphism
D. Thermal modification

C. contact metamorphism

The "layered" or "banded" appearance resulting from mineral alignment in a metamorphic rock is termed:
A. pseudo-crystallization
B. Bedding
C. foliation
D. orientation

C. foliation

Metamorphic rocks can form from other metamorphic rocks.
A. True
B. False

A. True

When a rock is buried it is subjected to greater confining pressure which tends to make the rock more __________.
A. buoyant
B. elongated
C. Fragile
D. dense

D. dense

When stress is applied unequally in different directions, it is termed __________.
A. confining pressure
B. confining stress
C. differential pressure
D. differential stress

D. differential stress

Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks are usually composed of __________.
A. elongated mineral graind
B. equidimensional mineral grains
C. a mixture of elongated and equidimensional mineral grains
D. None of the above

B. equidimensional mineral grains

Which one of the following is a foliated metamorphic rock?
A. quartzite
B. anthracite coal
C. Granite
D. Gneiss

D. Gneiss

The most common chemically active fluid involved in the metamorphic process is hot water containing ions in solution.
A. True
B. False

A. True

Which one of the following is not an agent of metamorphism?
A. Pressure (stress)
B. heat
C. Crystallization
D. Chemically active fluid

C. Crystallization

What is the major source of heat for contact metamorphism?
A. deep burial
B. Frictional heat created by moving fault
C. Heat from the decomposition of minerals
D. Heat from a nearby magma body

D. Heat from a nearby magma body

Which of the following is a non-foliated metamorphic rock?
A. Slate
B. Garnet-mica schist
C. Gneiss
D. Quartzite

D. Quartzite

Which of the following is most likely to have
a granular texture?
A. Marble
B. anthracite
C. migmatite
D. Gneiss
E. A and B

E. A and B

Which of the following metamorphic rocks has a porphyroblastic texture?
A. Garnet-mica schist
B. Slate
C. Gneiss
D. Quartzite
E. Mylonite

A. Garnet-mica schist

__________ dates pinpoint the time in history when something took place.
A. Relative
B. chronological
C. numerical

C. numerical

How many protons (p) and neutrons (n) comprise an alpha particle?
A. 1p, 1n
B. 3p, 2n
C. 2p, 2n
D. 29, 1n

C. 2p, 2n

Which of the following presents the eras of the Phanerozoic eon in the correct order, from most recent to oldest?
A. Mesozoic, Cenozoic, Paleozoic
B. Cenozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic
C. Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
D. Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic

D. Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic

The number of _________ in an atom gives the atom its atomic number.
A. protons
B. electrons
C. positions
D. neutrons

A. protons

The number of protons plus neutrons in an atom's nucleus is the atom's __________ number.
A. mass
B. isotope
C. key
D. atomic

A. mass

Atoms which have the same atomic numbers, but different mass numbers, are referred to as __________.
A. ions
B. catalysts
C. isotopes
D. variants

C. isotopes

When a beta particle is emitted from the nucleus of an atom:
A. neutron becomes a proton
B. an electron changes to a neutron
C. a proton changes to a neutron
D. a proton changes to a neutron

A. neutron becomes a proton

After the third half-life, the fraction of the original radioactive atoms remaining will be __________.
A. one-half
B. one-fourth
C. one-eighth
D. one-sixteenth

C. one-eighth

Collectively, the Hadean, Archean, and Proterozoic eons are often referred to as the __________.
A. Paleozoic
B. Mesozoic
C. Pleistocene
D. Precambrian

D. Precambrian

Isotopes of the same atom will have different numbers of __________.
A. protons
B. ions
C. electrons
D. neutrons

D. neutrons

The rate of radioactive decay for each unstable radioactive isotope is expressed as its __________.
A. half-life
B. degeneration curve
C. deep span
D. radioactive term

A. half-life

No place on Earth has a complete set of conformable strata.
A. True
B. False

A. True

Each era is divided into smaller units called __________, which may be further divided into __________.
A. stages; period
B. epochs; ages
C. ages; stages
D. periods; epochs

D. periods; epochs

__________ dating is the task of placing rock units and geologic events in their proper sequence.
A. Numerical
B. Relative
C. Sequence
D. Radioactive

B. Relative

In the geologic time scale, era names represent important differences in __________.
A. continental uplift
B. mountain building episodes
C. volcanic events
D. dominant life-forms

D. dominant life-forms

With each type of radioactive decay, the atomic number of the radioactive atom changes.
A. True
B. False

A. True

When we observe strata that are inclined at a steep angle, we can conclude that they were tilted sometime after their deposition by applying this relative dating principle.
A. superposition
B. cross-cutting
C. inclusion
D. original horizontality

D. original horizontality

Breaks or gaps in the rock record in which strata on both sides of the unconformity are parallel is:
A. a disconformity
B. a nonconformity
C. an angular unconformity
D. a conformity

A. a disconformity

On the geologic time scale, __________ represent the greatest expanses of time.
A. epochs
B. eras
C. eons
D. periods
E. none of the above

C. eons

We are presently living in the __________ era.
A. Hadean
B. Paleozoic
C. Cenozoic
D. Mesozoic

C. Cenozoic

The spontaneous breaking apart of unstable atomic nuclei is called radioactivity.
A. True
B. False

A. True

Which one of the following is NOT a type of unconformity?
A. transitional unconformity
B. disconformity
C. nonconformity
D. angular unconformity

A. transitional unconformity

The percentage of radioactive atoms that decay during each half-life is always fifty percent; however the actual number of atoms that decay continually decreases.
A. True
B. False

A. True

Which one of the following is NOT a type of radioactive decay?
A. alpha capture
B. beta emission
C. neutron capture
D. electron capture

C. neutron capture

What type of unconformity consists of folded sedimentary rocks overlain by younger, more flat-lying strata?
A. nonconformity
B. reversed conformity
C. disconformity
D. angular unconformity

D. angular unconformity

Which is the subdivision of an epoch?
A. Era
B. epoch
C. eon
D. period
E. none

E. none

Mesozoic is an example of ..............
A. Era
B. epoch
C. eon
D. period
E. none

A. Era

Eons are divided into one of these:
A. Era
B. epoch
C. eon
D. period
E. none

A. Era

Which is the smallest time span on the geologic time scale?
A. Era
B. epoch
C. eon
D. period
E. none

B. epoch

Cambrian and Jurassic are examples of
A. Era
B. epoch
C. eon
D. period
E. none

D. period

The age of the Earth is about
A. 4.5 million yrs
B. 540 million yrs
C. 4.5 billion yrs
D. 12.6 billion yrs

C. 4.5 billion yrs

The Phanerozoic era began about ... years ago
A. 4.5 billion yrs
B. 2.5 billion years
C. 540 million yrs
D. 248 million years

C. 540 million yrs

The Hadean, Archean, and Proterozoic are:
A. Eons that collectively comprise Precambrian
B. epochs of the quaternary Period
C. eras of the Phanerozoic eon
D. Periods of the Paleozoic era

A. Eons that collectively comprise Precambrian

Which era of the Phanerozoic eon has the most Periods?
A. Mesozoic
B. Paleozoic
C. Cenozoic
D. all have the same number

B. Paleozoic

Eocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene are examples of
A. eons
B. Periods
C. Eras
D. Epochs

D. Epochs

Marble is metamorphosed from which of the following rocks?
A. Shale
B. Quartz sandstone
C. Granite
D. Limestone
E. Siltstone

D. Limestone

Formation of metamorphic rock NEVER involves which of the following?
A. formation of minerals from old
B. increase in density
C. complete melting of the material from which it formed
D. change in orientation of mineral from which it formed
E. change in shape of mineral grains

C. complete melting of the material from which it formed

Which of the following is NOT the result of metamorphism?
A. growth of materials
B. development of alignment of minerals within the rock body
C. re-crystallization of minerals
D. deep weathering of feldspar-rich rocks
E. conglomerate pebbles deformed into long elliptical shapes

D. deep weathering of feldspar-rich rocks

Which of the following is NOT foliated metamorphic rock?
A. gneiss
B. schist
C. slate
D. marble

D. marble

Which of the following metamorphic rocks represents the highest intensity of metamorphism?
A. slate
B. quartzite
C. schist
D. gneiss
E. marble

D. gneiss

Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about metamorphic rocks?
A. The original rocks have been intensely altered.
B. Grains commonly have a preferred orientation.
C. They constitute a large part of the continental crust.
D. They are commonly strongly stratified.

D. They are commonly strongly stratified.

Which of the following metamorphic rocks is formed under very low pressure and low temperature?
A. Zeolite
B. Blueschist
C. Greenschist
D. Granulite
E. Sanidinite

A. Zeolite

Which of the following metamorphic rocks is most likely to be formed at the oceanic trench where an oceanic crust is being subducted underneath another plate
A. Greenscist facies
B. Granulite facies
C. Eclogite facies
D. Blueschist facies
E. Sanidinite

D. Blueschist facies

Which of the following rocks does not belong to the group?
A. Gneiss
B. Granite
C. Slate
D. Marble
E. Hornfels

B. Granite

The parallel re-alignment of rod-like minerals during metamorphism is:
A. slaty cleavage
B. schistocity
C. banding
D. lineation
E. foliation

D. lineation

Which of the following pairs of parent rock and its metamorphosed equivalent is NOT correctly matched?
A. sandstone - quartzite
B. shale - slate
C. limestone - schist
D. granite - gneiss
E. conglomerate - metaconglomerate

C. limestone - schist

The texture exhibited by slate, schist, and gneiss is called
A. fracture
B. stratification.
C. cleavage
D. foliation
E. alignment

D. foliation

Metamorphism
A. occurs during the deep burial of rock bodies
B. occurs around igneous intrusion
C. develops from strong directed horizontal stresses
D. commonly produces foliation that is not parallel with the original bedding of the rock being metamorphosed
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

Which of the following can cause metamorphism?
A. chemical action of fluids
B. increases in pressure
C. increases in temperature
D. all of the above

D. all of the above

Which of these rocks is not a metamorphic rock?
A. slate
B. marble
C. sandstone
D. quartzite
E. gneiss

C. sandstone

Increased pressure on rocks during metamorphism may result in:
A. rocks becoming plastic in behavior
B. changes in rock texture & mineralogy
C. re-orientation of mineral grains
D. closer atomic packing and compression, elongation or rotation of mineral grains
E. All of the above

E. All of the above

The parallel arrangement of large platy minerals is best described as
A. slaty cleaveage
B. schistosity
C. gneissic layering
D. metasomatism
E. migmatite

B. schistosity

Which of the following index minerals indicates lowest grade metamorphism?
A. chlorite
B. biotite
C. garnet
D. staurolite
E. sillimanite

A. chlorite

The only metamorphic rock in this list is:
A. sandstone
B. basalt
C. slate
D. shale
E. rhyolite

C. slate

Exposures of metamorphic rocks are most widespread in:
A. young mountains
B. shields
C. oceanic Islands
D. plateaus
E. stable platforms

B. shields

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