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The former, late Paleozoic super continent is known as ________.

Pangaea

Which of the following paleoclimatic evidence supports the idea of the late Paleozoic super continent in the Southern Hemisphere?

rocks formed by glaciers in South Africa and South America

The ________ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision.

northward movement of India into Eurasia

Pull-apart, rift zones are generally associated with ________.

a divergent plate boundary

Deep-focus earthquakes, those between 300 and 700 kilometers below the surface, occur only in association with ________.

mid-ocean ridges

A very long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a ________.

hot spot

Linear, magnetic patterns associated with mid-ocean ridges are configured as ________.

normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge

Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth's lithospheric plates?

export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere

The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegener could not ________.

identify a mechanism capable of moving continents

All of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for ________.

changes in the Moon's orbit due to shifting plates

Deep-focus earthquakes are associated with ________ plate boundaries.

convergent (subducting)

Which one of the following most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?

shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate

oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at ________.

divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma

Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sink into the mantle at ________.

subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries

Deep ocean trenches are surficial evidence for ________.

sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subduction zone

A transform plate boundary is characterized by ________.

a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions

The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is ________.

a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate

The volcanoes and deep valleys of east Africa are related to a ________.

continental rift along which parts of the African continent are beginning to slowly separate

________ most effectively outline the edges of the lithospheric plates.

Lines of earthquake epicenters

Deep-oceanic trenches are most abundant around the rim of the ________ ocean basin.

Pacific

The elastic rebound theory for the origin of earthquakes was first proposed by ________ following the ________ earthquake.

Reid; 1906, San Francisco

Which one of the following statements concerning foci and epicenters is correct?

The epicenter is at the surface directly above the focus where the earthquake initiates.

Which one of the following is true regarding tsunamis?

They occur in the open ocean, wavelengths are many miles or kilometers and wave heights are only a few feet.

Which of the following foundation materials is most stable during earthquake shaking?

bedrock

The ________ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy released. It does not directly measure the extent of building damage.

Richter

Why was the Marina District, San Francisco, heavily damaged in the 1906 and 1989 quakes?

Liquefaction and foundation failures were common.

The ________ is directly related to the Richter earthquake-magnitude rating.

amplitude of the seismic waves

Approximately how often do locked segments of the San Andreas Fault (California) break, resulting in major earthquakes?

once every hundred and fifty years

________ refers to the tendency for a foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and fail mechanically during earthquake shaking.

Liquefaction

The ________ is the point of origination for an earthquake.

focus

Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5?

30 times

________ is a widely accepted explanation for the mechanism that generates earthquakes.

Reid's elastic rebound theory

P waves ________.

are faster than S waves and surface waves

The Mercalli Scale is a scale from ________.

I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake

What are the smaller magnitude quakes that follow a major earthquake?

aftershocks

The largest lateral, ground displacement is produced by ________.

horizontally vibrating surface waves

The ________ is used to record ground shaking and the earthquake-magnitude scale was invented by ________.

seismograph; Richter

The epicenter of an earthquake is the ________.

surface location directly above the point where the fault slip initiates

Energy is stored in rocks adjacent to the site of a future earthquake as ________.

elastic strain

________ was struck by three major earthquakes during the winter and spring months of the years 1811-1812.

Madrid, Missouri

A hot spring that water is known as a ______.

fumarole

_____ is the term for solution topography in areas of limestone bedrock.

Karst

Deposition of dissolved minerals in caverns leaves deposits such as the icicle like _____.

stalactites

One of the common surface features of karst landscapes are sinkholes, also known as _____.

dolines

Caves are found in most parts of the world where there are thick _____ deposits under the surface.

limestone

When a stalactite meets a stalagmite the result is a _______.

pillar

When hot water is ejected from a geyser, that flow is called an ________.

eruption

The production of travertine first requires that ______ dissolves in hot water and makes an acid that dissolves great quantities of limestone.

carbon dioxide

In karst landscape of slight relief, _______ are the most common features.

sinkholes

Just beneath the surface of Yellowstone National PArk is a large ______.

magma chamber

All major geyser basins are similar in that they are covered with ______.

mineral deposits

Geyser deposits tend to form ______.

sheets of particpated matter.

Which of the following is not very resistant to solution in water?

sodium

In rock, _______ is an end product of common solution reactions.

bicarbonate

The brilliant colors around hot springs and geysers is _________.

due to algae

The primary way in which underground water shapes topography is through _______.

chemical action

The rapid appearance of sinkholes in Florida can be explained by .....

buildings built on top of bedrock cavities.

Which of the following is an example of a speleothem?

a stalactite

Like limestone, _____ is highly susceptible to subsurface erosion.

gypsum

Which of the following is not a "limy" rock?

granite

Water flowing into sinkholes frequently disappears into ______.

swallow holes

By far, the world's largest concentration of hydrothermal features occurs in ______.

Wyoming.

Underground water is a weak ______ acid.

Carbonic

Which three substances are required to interact to form calcium bicarbonate?

Water, carbone dioxide, and lime

Cavern openings to the surface are usually _____.

small

Which of the following is a MASSIVE accumulation of calcium carbonate?

Travertine

The slopes of these features have angles of repose of 20 to 30?

sinkholes

_______ are typically found at the intersections of joints.

Sinkholes

_________ is a term which refers to solution landscapes and literally means "barren land"?

Karst

Travertine and tufa are both composed of _________.

calcium carbonate

A swallow hole is most closely associated with _______.

sinkholes

In hydrothermal situations, superheating of water is possible because of the presence of _______.

high pressure

The largest sinkholes are in ________ regions.

tropical

Drainage in karst areas is often beneath the surface.

True

Pure water is an excellent solvent

False

What is the circulation within Earth's outer core responsible for?

The generation of Earth's magnetic field

What is the lithosphere composed of?

The crust and the uppermost mantle

What holds most sedimentary rocks together?

Cementing agents that precipitate out of water

What is isostasy?

It refers to the crust's ability to sink down into the mantle when the crust's mass increases and to rebound when its mass is lessened.

Felsic igneous rocks contain large portions of ______ while mafic igneous rocks contain large portions of ________.

Light colored silicate minerals; dark-colored silicate minerals.

Sedimentary deposits built into relatively regular layers are known as ______.

strata

Foliation refers to this characteristic of metamorphosed rocks:

wavy, banded lines

The initial formation of the Earth involved the cooling and solidification of ______.

magma

______ refers to the altitudinal difference between the highest and lowest points in an area

Relief

The doctrine of ______ holds that the processes that are shaping the contemporary landscape are the same processes that formed topography of the past and are the same processes that will shape topography of the future.

Uniformitarianism

The totality of minerals ejected from a volcano including liquid material, ashes and dust is termed:

pyroclastic material

Volcanic are Extrusive rocks

true

Lithification involves compaction and cementation

true

Counterpart of marble is limestone

True

Earth has a heavy, solid inner core surrounded by three concentric shells-outer core, mantle, and crust- of various densities and compositions.

True

Earth's crust consists of a variety of minerals that form many kinds of rocks.

True

Molten magma cools to form igneous rocks

True

Geomorphologists focus on understanding the internal and external processes that affect the formation of landforms.

True

When subjected to metamorphism, limestone usually becomes ________.

marble

________ is a dark, fine-grained extrusive rock.

basalt

The earliest Era in the Geologic time scale is _______.

Precambrian

Limestone is composed primarily of ________.

calcite

The thickest of Earth's interior layers is the _______.

mantle

The initial formation of Earth involved the solidification and cooling of ______.

magma

Marble is metamorphosed ________.

limestone

When magma cools rapidly, it results in ________.

small crystals

The largest and most important mineral family consists of the _______.

silicates

The most widely distributed intrusive rock is granite.

True

Sandstone is the most common metamorphic rock.

False

Scale differences in landform studies are complex and of significance.

True

Uniformitarianism is the study of the interior of the Earth.

False

In general, the slow cooling of molten rock leads to formation of large crystals.

True

Granites is a type of rock which has cooled from magma.

True

Metamorphic rocks must be exposed to sunlight for cementation.

False

Fragmented mineral material is called sediment.

True

Sedimentary rocks are the most common rock type found within the Earth's entire crust.

False

Igneous rocks apparently make up the bulk of Earth's entire crust.

True

Topography is a synonym for geomorphology.

False

The mantle is located beneath the Moho.

True

Foliation occurs when rock composed of a single material is subjected to heat and pressure.

False

A rock is defined as a mixture of elements.

False

Igneous rocks are directly derived from the deformation of metamorphic rocks.

False

Sedimentary strata are always formed horizontally.

True

Several organic minerals are found in nature.

False

________ is an "Internal" process?

Diastrophism

Which of the following is the specific name given to the study of the characteristics of rocks?

Petrology

The following is found at the base of Earth's crust:

the Moho

Which of the following is NOT one of the principal categories of rock-forming minerals?

peptides

The _______ is NOT a portion of Earth's interior.

magnetosphere

___________ is an example of a native element.

Gold

The process of ______, involves the lowering of continental surfaces and is accomplished by a combination of three processes: weathering, mass wasting, and erosion.

denudation

Joints can be distinguished from faults in that

there is no movement along joints

Water is major agent of weathering because of its property that, when it freezes, it decreases in density and.....

evaporates

______ must take place FIRST during the denudation of a landscape.

Weathering

The process of hydrolysis involves ________.

the chemical union of water with another substance to yield to a compound that is weaker than the original rock or mineral.

A slope collapse with a backward rotation, often characterized by a crescent-shaped scarp face is a _____.

slump

_________ involves the peeling of thin layers of stone off a large rock and might happen directly as a result of the removal of an overlying weight from the landscape.

exfoliation

clay is a facilitator for mass wasting because clay _______.

absorbs water

A soil pH measuring 7 on the standard pH scale is considered:

neutral hence most suitable for majority of plants and microorganisms.

Openings in rocks (particularly joints) allow weathering to take place deep below the surface.

True

Weathering loosens surface and near-surface material in bedrock and makes it prone to mass wasting and erosion.

True

Mechanical weathering processes include frost wedging, salt wedging, and temperature changes in rock.

True

Biological weathering is relatively minor; it involves the effects that burrowing animals, plant root penetration, and organic acids have on the other two weathering processes.

True

Chemical weathering weakens the chemical makeup of rock minerals.

True

The three general weathering processes are interrelated and are influenced to varying degrees by the climate.

True

There are a several mass wasting processes, but they all transfer weathered materials down slopes under the influence of gravity.

True

The chemical union of water with another substance is called _________.

hydrolysis.

A weathering type associated with curved and concentric sets of joints break away in successive layers is called ______.

exfoliation

The general term signifying the overall lowering of the rock material on the Earth's crust is ________.

denudation.

The rock debris which accumulates at the base of steep slopes by gravitational actions is called _________.

talus

The main downslope movement of subarctic and arctic landscape is ______.

solifluction

Water is a major agent of weathering because of its property that, when it freezes, it decreases in density and _______.

expands in volume.

The slowest and least perceptible form of mass wasting is ______.

creep

A slop collapse with a backward rotation is a _______.

slump

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