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The former, late Paleozoic super continent is known as ________.


Which of the following paleoclimatic evidence supports the idea of the late Paleozoic super continent in the Southern Hemisphere?

rocks formed by glaciers in South Africa and South America

The ________ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision.

northward movement of India into Eurasia

Pull-apart, rift zones are generally associated with ________.

a divergent plate boundary

Deep-focus earthquakes, those between 300 and 700 kilometers below the surface, occur only in association with ________.

mid-ocean ridges

A very long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a ________.

hot spot

Linear, magnetic patterns associated with mid-ocean ridges are configured as ________.

normal and reversed magnetized strips roughly parallel to the ridge

Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth's lithospheric plates?

export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere

The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily because Alfred Wegener could not ________.

identify a mechanism capable of moving continents

All of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for ________.

changes in the Moon's orbit due to shifting plates

Deep-focus earthquakes are associated with ________ plate boundaries.

convergent (subducting)

Which one of the following most accurately describes the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands?

shield volcanoes fed by a long-lived hot spot below the Pacific lithospheric plate

oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at ________.

divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma

Cooler, older, oceanic lithosphere sink into the mantle at ________.

subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries

Deep ocean trenches are surficial evidence for ________.

sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subduction zone

A transform plate boundary is characterized by ________.

a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions

The modern-day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is ________.

a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate

The volcanoes and deep valleys of east Africa are related to a ________.

continental rift along which parts of the African continent are beginning to slowly separate

________ most effectively outline the edges of the lithospheric plates.

Lines of earthquake epicenters

Deep-oceanic trenches are most abundant around the rim of the ________ ocean basin.


The elastic rebound theory for the origin of earthquakes was first proposed by ________ following the ________ earthquake.

Reid; 1906, San Francisco

Which one of the following statements concerning foci and epicenters is correct?

The epicenter is at the surface directly above the focus where the earthquake initiates.

Which one of the following is true regarding tsunamis?

They occur in the open ocean, wavelengths are many miles or kilometers and wave heights are only a few feet.

Which of the following foundation materials is most stable during earthquake shaking?


The ________ magnitude scale is a measure of the energy released. It does not directly measure the extent of building damage.


Why was the Marina District, San Francisco, heavily damaged in the 1906 and 1989 quakes?

Liquefaction and foundation failures were common.

The ________ is directly related to the Richter earthquake-magnitude rating.

amplitude of the seismic waves

Approximately how often do locked segments of the San Andreas Fault (California) break, resulting in major earthquakes?

once every hundred and fifty years

________ refers to the tendency for a foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and fail mechanically during earthquake shaking.


The ________ is the point of origination for an earthquake.


Approximately how much more energy is released in a 6.5 Richter magnitude earthquake than in one with magnitude 5.5?

30 times

________ is a widely accepted explanation for the mechanism that generates earthquakes.

Reid's elastic rebound theory

P waves ________.

are faster than S waves and surface waves

The Mercalli Scale is a scale from ________.

I to XII that rates the structural damage due to an earthquake

What are the smaller magnitude quakes that follow a major earthquake?


The largest lateral, ground displacement is produced by ________.

horizontally vibrating surface waves

The ________ is used to record ground shaking and the earthquake-magnitude scale was invented by ________.

seismograph; Richter

The epicenter of an earthquake is the ________.

surface location directly above the point where the fault slip initiates

Energy is stored in rocks adjacent to the site of a future earthquake as ________.

elastic strain

________ was struck by three major earthquakes during the winter and spring months of the years 1811-1812.

Madrid, Missouri

A hot spring that water is known as a ______.


_____ is the term for solution topography in areas of limestone bedrock.


Deposition of dissolved minerals in caverns leaves deposits such as the icicle like _____.


One of the common surface features of karst landscapes are sinkholes, also known as _____.


Caves are found in most parts of the world where there are thick _____ deposits under the surface.


When a stalactite meets a stalagmite the result is a _______.


When hot water is ejected from a geyser, that flow is called an ________.


The production of travertine first requires that ______ dissolves in hot water and makes an acid that dissolves great quantities of limestone.

carbon dioxide

In karst landscape of slight relief, _______ are the most common features.


Just beneath the surface of Yellowstone National PArk is a large ______.

magma chamber

All major geyser basins are similar in that they are covered with ______.

mineral deposits

Geyser deposits tend to form ______.

sheets of particpated matter.

Which of the following is not very resistant to solution in water?


In rock, _______ is an end product of common solution reactions.


The brilliant colors around hot springs and geysers is _________.

due to algae

The primary way in which underground water shapes topography is through _______.

chemical action

The rapid appearance of sinkholes in Florida can be explained by .....

buildings built on top of bedrock cavities.

Which of the following is an example of a speleothem?

a stalactite

Like limestone, _____ is highly susceptible to subsurface erosion.


Which of the following is not a "limy" rock?


Water flowing into sinkholes frequently disappears into ______.

swallow holes

By far, the world's largest concentration of hydrothermal features occurs in ______.


Underground water is a weak ______ acid.


Which three substances are required to interact to form calcium bicarbonate?

Water, carbone dioxide, and lime

Cavern openings to the surface are usually _____.


Which of the following is a MASSIVE accumulation of calcium carbonate?


The slopes of these features have angles of repose of 20 to 30?


_______ are typically found at the intersections of joints.


_________ is a term which refers to solution landscapes and literally means "barren land"?


Travertine and tufa are both composed of _________.

calcium carbonate

A swallow hole is most closely associated with _______.


In hydrothermal situations, superheating of water is possible because of the presence of _______.

high pressure

The largest sinkholes are in ________ regions.


Drainage in karst areas is often beneath the surface.


Pure water is an excellent solvent


What is the circulation within Earth's outer core responsible for?

The generation of Earth's magnetic field

What is the lithosphere composed of?

The crust and the uppermost mantle

What holds most sedimentary rocks together?

Cementing agents that precipitate out of water

What is isostasy?

It refers to the crust's ability to sink down into the mantle when the crust's mass increases and to rebound when its mass is lessened.

Felsic igneous rocks contain large portions of ______ while mafic igneous rocks contain large portions of ________.

Light colored silicate minerals; dark-colored silicate minerals.

Sedimentary deposits built into relatively regular layers are known as ______.


Foliation refers to this characteristic of metamorphosed rocks:

wavy, banded lines

The initial formation of the Earth involved the cooling and solidification of ______.


______ refers to the altitudinal difference between the highest and lowest points in an area


The doctrine of ______ holds that the processes that are shaping the contemporary landscape are the same processes that formed topography of the past and are the same processes that will shape topography of the future.


The totality of minerals ejected from a volcano including liquid material, ashes and dust is termed:

pyroclastic material

Volcanic are Extrusive rocks


Lithification involves compaction and cementation


Counterpart of marble is limestone


Earth has a heavy, solid inner core surrounded by three concentric shells-outer core, mantle, and crust- of various densities and compositions.


Earth's crust consists of a variety of minerals that form many kinds of rocks.


Molten magma cools to form igneous rocks


Geomorphologists focus on understanding the internal and external processes that affect the formation of landforms.


When subjected to metamorphism, limestone usually becomes ________.


________ is a dark, fine-grained extrusive rock.


The earliest Era in the Geologic time scale is _______.


Limestone is composed primarily of ________.


The thickest of Earth's interior layers is the _______.


The initial formation of Earth involved the solidification and cooling of ______.


Marble is metamorphosed ________.


When magma cools rapidly, it results in ________.

small crystals

The largest and most important mineral family consists of the _______.


The most widely distributed intrusive rock is granite.


Sandstone is the most common metamorphic rock.


Scale differences in landform studies are complex and of significance.


Uniformitarianism is the study of the interior of the Earth.


In general, the slow cooling of molten rock leads to formation of large crystals.


Granites is a type of rock which has cooled from magma.


Metamorphic rocks must be exposed to sunlight for cementation.


Fragmented mineral material is called sediment.


Sedimentary rocks are the most common rock type found within the Earth's entire crust.


Igneous rocks apparently make up the bulk of Earth's entire crust.


Topography is a synonym for geomorphology.


The mantle is located beneath the Moho.


Foliation occurs when rock composed of a single material is subjected to heat and pressure.


A rock is defined as a mixture of elements.


Igneous rocks are directly derived from the deformation of metamorphic rocks.


Sedimentary strata are always formed horizontally.


Several organic minerals are found in nature.


________ is an "Internal" process?


Which of the following is the specific name given to the study of the characteristics of rocks?


The following is found at the base of Earth's crust:

the Moho

Which of the following is NOT one of the principal categories of rock-forming minerals?


The _______ is NOT a portion of Earth's interior.


___________ is an example of a native element.


The process of ______, involves the lowering of continental surfaces and is accomplished by a combination of three processes: weathering, mass wasting, and erosion.


Joints can be distinguished from faults in that

there is no movement along joints

Water is major agent of weathering because of its property that, when it freezes, it decreases in density and.....


______ must take place FIRST during the denudation of a landscape.


The process of hydrolysis involves ________.

the chemical union of water with another substance to yield to a compound that is weaker than the original rock or mineral.

A slope collapse with a backward rotation, often characterized by a crescent-shaped scarp face is a _____.


_________ involves the peeling of thin layers of stone off a large rock and might happen directly as a result of the removal of an overlying weight from the landscape.


clay is a facilitator for mass wasting because clay _______.

absorbs water

A soil pH measuring 7 on the standard pH scale is considered:

neutral hence most suitable for majority of plants and microorganisms.

Openings in rocks (particularly joints) allow weathering to take place deep below the surface.


Weathering loosens surface and near-surface material in bedrock and makes it prone to mass wasting and erosion.


Mechanical weathering processes include frost wedging, salt wedging, and temperature changes in rock.


Biological weathering is relatively minor; it involves the effects that burrowing animals, plant root penetration, and organic acids have on the other two weathering processes.


Chemical weathering weakens the chemical makeup of rock minerals.


The three general weathering processes are interrelated and are influenced to varying degrees by the climate.


There are a several mass wasting processes, but they all transfer weathered materials down slopes under the influence of gravity.


The chemical union of water with another substance is called _________.


A weathering type associated with curved and concentric sets of joints break away in successive layers is called ______.


The general term signifying the overall lowering of the rock material on the Earth's crust is ________.


The rock debris which accumulates at the base of steep slopes by gravitational actions is called _________.


The main downslope movement of subarctic and arctic landscape is ______.


Water is a major agent of weathering because of its property that, when it freezes, it decreases in density and _______.

expands in volume.

The slowest and least perceptible form of mass wasting is ______.


A slop collapse with a backward rotation is a _______.


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