Chapter 9: Crags, Cracks, and Crumples flashcards |

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A fold with an arch-like shape in which the limbs dip away from the hinge.

axial surface

In the context of folds, this is the imaginary plane that contains the hinge lines of successive layers in the fold; it is the surface that divides a fold into its two separate limbs.


A fold or depression shaped like a right-side-up bowl.

brittle deformation

The cracking and fracturing of a material subjected to stress.


A push or squeezing felt by a body.


A long-lived block of durable continental crust commonly found in the stable interior of a continent.


A change in the shape, position, or orientation of a material, by bending, breaking, or flowing.


The angle at which a layer tilts, relative to horizontal; the angle is measured in an imaginary vertical plane that trends perpendicular to the strike.


The amount of movement or slip across a fault plane.


Folded or arched layers with the shape of an overturned bowl.

ductile deformation

The bending and flowing of a material (without cracking and breaking) subjected to stress.


A fracture on which one body of rock slides past another.

fault scarp

A small step on the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other.


A bend or wrinkle of rock layers or foliation; folds form as a consequence of ductile deformation.


Layering formed as a consequence of the alignment of mineral grains, or of compositional banding in a metamorphic rock.

global positioning system (GPS)

A satellite system people can use to measure rates of movement of the Earth's crust relative to one another, or simply to locate their position on the Earth's surface.


The portion of a fold where curvature is greatest.


The condition that exists when the buoyancy force pushing lithosphere up equals the gravitational force pulling lithosphere down.


Naturally formed cracks in rocks.

limb (of fold)

The side of a fold, showing less curvature than at the hinge.


A fold in the land surface whose shape resembles that of a carpet draped over a stair step.

normal fault

A fault in which the hanging-wall block moves down the slope of the fault.

orogenic collapse

The process in which mountains begin to collapse under their own weight and spread out laterally.


A linear range of mountains.


A mountain-building event.


Force per unit area, or the ร’pushร“ acting on a material in cases where the push is the same in all directions.

reverse fault

A steeply dipping fault on which the hanging-wall block slides up.

shear stress

A stress that moves one part of a material sideways past another part.


The change in shape of an object in response to deformation (i.e., as a result of the application of a stress).


The push, pull, or shear that a material feels when subjected to a force; formally, the force applied per unit area over which the force acts.


The compass trend of an imaginary horizontal line on a plane.

strike-slip fault

A fault in which one block slides horizontally past another (and therefore parallel to the strike line), so there is no relative vertical motion.


A trough-shaped fold whose limbs dip toward the hinge.


A stress that pulls on a material and could lead to stretching.

thrust fault

A gently dipping reverse fault; the hanging-wall block moves up the slope of the fault.


The upward vertical movement of the ground surface, as occurs during mountain building.


A seam of minerals that forms when dissolved ions carried by water solutions precipitate in cracks.

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