Chapter 18: Amazing Ice: Glaciers and Ice Ages flashcards |

This is a Free Service provided by Why Fund Inc. (a 501 C3 NonProfit) We thank you for your donation!

(1. Click on the course Study Set you wish to learn.) (2. If you wish you can click on "Print" and print the test page.) (3. When you want to take a on anyone of the tests for that Study Set.) (4. Click on "Check Answers" and it will score your test and correct your answers.) (5. You can take all the tests as many times as you choose until you get an "A"!) (6. Automated college courses created from lecture notes, class exams, text books, reading materials from many colleges and universities.)


Long-Term Learning

Learn efficiently and remember over time.

Start Long-Term Learning

Get personalized study reminders at intervals optimized for better retention.
Track your progress on this set by creating a folder


A residual knife-edge ridge of rock that separates two adjacent cirques.

basal sliding

The phenomenon in which meltwater accumulates at the base of a glacier, so that the mass of the glacier slides on a layer of water or on a slurry of water and sediment.


A bowl-shaped depression carved by a glacier on the side of a mountain.

continental glacier

A vast sheet of ice that spreads over thousands of square kilometers of continental crust.


A large crack that develops by brittle deformation in the top 60 m of a glacier.


A streamlined, elongate hill formed when a glacier overrides glacial till.

end moraine

A low, sinuous ridge of till that develops when the terminus (toe) of a glacier stalls in one position for a while.

equilibrium line

The boundary between the zone of accumulation and the zone of ablation on a glacier.


A boulder or cobble that was picked up by a glacier and deposited hundreds of kilometers away from the outcrop from which it detached.


A ridge of sorted sand and gravel that snakes across a ground moraine; the sediment of an esker was deposited in subglacial meltwater tunnels.


A deep, glacially carved, U-shaped valley flooded by rising sea level.

glacial advance

The forward movement of a glacier's toe when the supply of snow exceeds the rate of ablation.

glacial retreat

The movement of a glacier's toe back toward the glacier's origin; glacial retreat occurs if the rate of ablation exceeds the rate of supply.

glacial striations

Scratches or troughs carved into rock by the sediment embedded in ice at the base of a flowing glacier.

glacial till

Sediment transported by flowing ice and deposited beneath a glacier or at its toe.


A river or sheet of ice that slowly flows across the land surface and lasts all year long.

hanging valley

A glacially carved tributary valley whose floor lies at a higher elevation than the floor of the trunk valley.


A pointed mountain peak surrounded by at least three cirques.

ice age

An interval of time in which the climate was colder than it is today, glaciers occasionally advanced to cover large areas of the continents, and mountain glaciers grew; an ice age can include many glacials and interglacials.


A large block of ice that calves off the front of a glacier and drops into the sea.

kettle hole

A circular depression in the ground made when a block of ice calves off the toe of a glacier, becomes buried by till, and later melts.

lateral moraine

A strip of debris along the side margins of a glacier.


Layers of fine-grained sediments deposited from the wind; large deposits of loess formed from fine-grained glacial sediment blown off outwash plains.

medial moraine

A strip of sediment in the interior of a glacier, parallel to the flow direction of the glacier, formed by the lateral moraines of two merging glaciers.

Milankovitch cycles

Climate cycles that occur over tens to hundreds of thousands of years, because of changes in Earth's orbit and tilt.


A sediment pile composed of till deposited by a glacier.

mountain glacier

A glacier that exists in or adjacent to a mountainous region.

patterned ground

A polar landscape in which the ground splits into pentagonal or hexagonal shapes.


Permanently frozen ground.

plastic deformation

The deformational process in which mineral grains behave like plastic and, when compressed or sheared, become flattened or elongate without cracking or breaking.

pluvial lake

A lake formed to the south of a continental glacier as a result of enhanced rainfall during an ice age.

polar glacier

Dry-bottom glacier.

roche moutonnลฝe

A glacially eroded hill that becomes elongate in the direction of flow and asymmetric; glacial rasping smoothes the upstream part of the hill into a gentle slope, while glacial plucking erodes the downstream edge into a steep slope.

sea ice

Ice formed by the freezing of the surface of the sea.

snowball Earth

Our planet during periods in the Precambrian when its entire surface was ice covered.

temperate glacier

A glacier that exists in regions where it is warm enough for liquid water to occur in films between the grains of ice.

terminal moraine

The end moraine at the farthest limit of glaciation.

Please allow access to your computerโ€™s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.


We canโ€™t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording

This is a Plus feature


๎€‚ Create Study Set