Intro to Geology Chapter 16 Earthquakes flashcards |

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Earthquake

•Trembling or shaking of the ground caused by the sudden release of energy stored in the rocks beneath the surface of the earth

Elastic rebound theory

•Sudden release of progressively energy stored in the rocks
•Rocks progressively strained
•Energy stored in the rock exceeds the breaking strength of the rock

Focus of an earthquake

•The point within the Earth where seismic wave originates
•Point of initial breakage of the rock or movement along fault
•Usually below the Earth's surface

Epicenter of an earthquake

•Point on the earth's surface directly above the focus

Benioff Zones are found near

•Ocean trenches

What is the minimum number of seismic stations needed to determine the estimated regional location of the epicenter of an earthquake?

•3

Shallow Focus

•Earthquakes along a subduction zone

In order to find the exact location of the epicenter of an earthquake, the first motion of what type of sesmic waves can be used?

•P-Waves

The distance ofa seismic station from the epicenter of an earthquake can be measured by the time of arrivla differnces of what two types of seismic waves?

• P & S Waves

The Ricter scale measures what?

•Magnitude of an earthquake

Most earthquakes at Divergent plate boundaries are?

•Shallow Focus

Compression Waves

•Also known as P-Waves
•1st motion in the peak of a seismic wave is "up"

Extention Waves

•Also known as S-Waves
•1st motion in the dip of a seismic wave is "down"

Rayleigh Wave

• Seismic wave that is considered to be the most destructive

Love Wave

Epicenter

•Point on the earth's surface directly above the focus

Benioff Zone

•Narrow zone of earthquakes of descending depth along a subducting plate

Magnitude of an earthquake

•Measures the energy released during the earthquake

North Ridge Earthquake

•Well-known earthquake the professor survived in So. Cali.

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