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132 Multiple choice questions

  1. When a bloody object comes into contact with a surface and leaves a patterned blood image on the surface.
  2. By increasing the # of alleles on different loci, the prob of having 2 people with the exact combination becomes astronomical.
  3. A method in which DNA is converted into a series of bands that ultimately distinguishes each individual
  4. Gunshot. (Back-spatter from entry wound, forward-spatter from exit wound); fine mist appearance
  5. Where the "blow" occurs. 3D. Determined by drawing a line from area of intersection straight up to where the angle of impact would intersect.
  6. Harder, less porous the surface-less drop breaks apart
    Hard, smooth surface- little or not distortion around the edge
  7. Thomas Jefferson's property, did she have his child? Yes, genetic link between Jefferson and Hemings descendants. Could have been any male Jefferson, this was all run by STR.
  8. Platelets; tiny; responsible for blood clotting SMALLEST
  9. To identify potential suspects, to exonerate individuals, to identify crime and casualty victims, to establish paternity, to match organ donors.
  10. 10
  11. On average, account for 8% of total body weight
  12. 7, partner to profiler, first and last are repeats as double check.
  13. A substance that reacts with an antigen
  14. Adding the dNTPs and duplicating the DNA
  15. Polymerase Chain Reaction- technique for making many copies of a defined segment of a DNA molecule.
  16. Y chromosome is the only one without a partner. It is alone and recombines with itself. Most of the Y chromosome, passes almost unchanged from generation to generation.
  17. Lies below the epidermis
  18. Imbricate- Flattened
    Coronal- Crown-like
    Spinous- petal-like
  19. -Will remain spherical in space until it drops onto a surface
    - Once it impacts a surface, bloodstain is formed.
    -Droplet falling from same height, hitting surface at same angle, will produce a stain with the same basic shape.
  20. Glass Refractive Index Measurement- a computer attached to a video system that views the glass fragments as heat is applied to the liquid medium in a hot stage. The match point tempt is converted to a refractive index using data from the computer.
  21. Structure from which the hair grows
  22. Acid phosphatase color test, Prostate Specific Antigen
  23. Short Tandem Repeats, latest method of DNA typing. Locations (loci) not the chromosome that contains short sequences of 3 to 7 bases that repeat themselves with the DNA molecule.
  24. Hitchhiker killed, man denies it. But seeds in his car match only one tree.
  25. Clumping of red blood cells; will result if blood types with different antigens are mixed
  26. Person walking, free-falling drops, dripping, splashing, arterial spurting
  27. 40 % blood volume loss (exsangunation) for death, which is 5-6 liters for males and 4-5 for females.
  28. An electrical current moves through a substance causing molecules to sort by size. Smaller,lighter molecules move the furthest on the gel. (Run the gel, observe and compare bands of DNA)
  29. Class evidence, probative value, common trace element, compare physical and chemical characteristics
  30. 1985 isolated DNA markers and called them DNA fingerprints. Credited with the DNA profiling using RFLP.
  31. Male's underwear, pubic hair, head hair, penile swab, blood sample. Also maybe transfer of blood, semen, saliva, hairs, and fibers
  32. # of kinds of earth material is unlimited, changes rapidly over short distances, wide distributions, evidential value. This value increases with rare minerals, rocks, fossil, manufactured particles
  33. Microscopic observation- color and fiber surfaces
    Burning- how fibers burn, the odor and appearance of residue
    Thermal decomposition- gently heating to break down the fabric to their monomers
    Chemical testing- solubility and decomposition
    Density- mass of object divided by volume of object
    Refractive Index- measuring the bending of a ray of light as it passes from air into solid/liquid
    Flurosence- comparing fibers of common origin
  34. Used to place a suspect at a crime.
  35. AB
  36. 1985 developed PCR testing, Nobel Prize winner.
  37. Blood stain patterns are considered circumstantial. Not 100% exact, there are some things people can read into that others don't see. Still important if person doing the analysis has some credibility.
  38. Found in the nucleus, constitutes 23 pairs of chromosome from both parents. Each cell only contains one nuclei.
  39. Professor of Criminalistics, wrote book that contained a chapter in which he discussed the application of blood stain pattern analysis to criminal investigators. Instrumental in Sheppard's case based on blood stain pattern photos
  40. Most frequently found pieces of evidence at the scene of a violent crime. Provide a link bet went the criminal and the act. Can determine: Human or animal, race, origin, manner in which hair is removed, treated hair, drugs
  41. depends on cross-section being round (straight) oval (curly) or crescent (kinky)
  42. Wet blood is transferred to a surface which did not first have blood on it. (fade out towards end)
  43. Extract the gene from the sample. Amplify sample by means of PCR. Separate by electrophoresis. Examine the dissonance the STR migrates to determine the # of repeats. Continue process with other STRs from other genes.
  44. Age and sex cannot determined (sex can be if DNA analysis of root tissue is present). Hair root with follicular tissue can indicate if hair was pulled out forcibly
  45. Study of pollen and spores. Variation in size and weight, dispersal pattern and produced in given area.
  46. White blood cells; responsible for "cleaning" the system of foreign invaders. LARGEST, LEAST NUMEROUS. Nucleus-DNA
  47. Arrested and his DNA profiled matched the semen from both murders in England. 1988 he was sentenced to life for the 2 murders.
  48. If DNA is available, from root. Everything is class, even mtDNA which can come from the shaft
  49. Round- falls straight down at 90 degree angle
    Elliptical- Blood droplet elongates as the angle decreases from 90 to 0
    Formula: width/angle length=sine of the impact
  50. Every gene has at least 2 of these, one from mom and one from dad.
  51. Invented a way to test for antibodies in dried blood flakes in 1932: Absorption-elution
  52. Baseball bat
  53. Type of soil may have similar characteristics at the primary and/or secondary crime scene, on the suspect or on the victim.
  54. Circular lines around the point of impact; begins on the same side as the force
  55. Electrophoresis- Fragments separated on basis of mass/change. Gel or Capillary- cause the DNA molecules to move up through the machine
  56. The greatest speed to which a free falling drop of blood can accelerate in air. It is dependent upon the acceleration of gravity and the friction of the air against the blood
  57. Based on having A, B, both or none of the factors on the red blood cell
  58. Kastle-Meyer color test//Microcystalline tests//Leucomalachite test//Luminol test
  59. Case where Beamish was convicted when a leather jacket was found with victim's blood and 27 strand of white cat hair. Beamish had this white cat
  60. 1953 discovered the configuration of the DNA molecule
  61. Radiate out front the origin of the impact; begins on opposite side of force
  62. Red blood cells; responsible for oxygen distribution. MOST NUMEROUS. No nucleus-no DNA
  63. Microscopic survey: different cellular characteristics
    Precipitin test- blood injected into rabbit, withdrawn and tested
    Characteristic Differences: types and sizes of cells
    (Frogs- larger nucleic red blood cells)
  64. Relates to the direction a drop of blood traveled in space from its point of origin
  65. Cuticle- outside covering, made up of overlapping scales
    Cortex- outer layer made of keratin and imbedded with pigment; also contains air sacs called cortical fuss
    Medulla- inside layer running downy the center of the cortex (Continuous, intermittent, fragmented, absent)
  66. Natural particles with a grain diameter, color and contents is dependent upon the parent rock and surrounding plant and animal life.
  67. Found in cytoplasm, inherited only from mother, Each cell contains hundreds of mitochondria. Can be found in skeletal remains. (rigorous, much time, costly, no database) Constructed in a circular pattern. Best used when nuclear DNA typing is not available.
  68. (shadow that appears around an object immersed in a liquid) Disappears and there is minimal difference between he glass and the liquid
  69. Made of fibers and fibers are made of twisted filaments
    Natural- animal, vegetable, or inorganic sources (silk, cotton, wool, cashmere)
    Artificial- synthesized or created from altered natural sources (polyester, nylon, etc)
  70. Combined DNA Index System, used for linking serial crimes and unsolved cases with repeat offenders. Links all 50 states, requires >4 RFLP and/or 13 core STR markers
  71. Silver staining (gel only), Fluorescence detection. STR Genotypes visualized on electropherogram.
  72. Among the smallest and most highly specialized cells in the human body; head and tail, 23 chromosomes with the genetic material in the head
  73. Composition is based material of the source; gives sand its color
    texture is determined by the way the source was transported. (grain size, shape, sorting)
  74. Study of plant material and relationship to crime scene investigation. (plant remains can be found almost everywhere, offers macro/microscopic evidence, structure allows identification of the plant and allows gathering of info)
  75. Group of college law students work on cases where DNA may prove innocence (or guilt). Exornerate the wrongly convicted throughout post conviction DNA testing; and develop the implement reforms to prevent wrongful convictions. 318 exonerated
  76. THE leading expert on DNA Typing.
  77. Only if the sand has an unusual characteristic
  78. Anagen- hair that is growing
    Catagen- hair at rest
    Telogen- hair that is dying, up to 2 to 6 months
    1 half inch per month
  79. faces the direction the stain is traveling
  80. Color, length, diameter, distribution of pigments, scale types, absence or pre scene of medulla type pattern index
  81. The level at which evidence provides proof of the crime.
  82. More acute the angle, the more elongated the stain.
    90 perfectly round, 80 takes on more elliptical shape.
    30, produces tail.
  83. Never lead to one individual, but narrowed down
  84. High velocity projectile leaders wider hole on exit side of glass Cracks terminate at their intersections with others.
  85. Immersion method- lowered into liquids whose refractive index is different
    Match point- when the refractive index of the glass is equal to that of the liquid
  86. Deals with the examination and analysis of blood fluids, including saliva, semen, urine, and blood.
  87. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. (Isolation, Cutting, Sorting, Analyzing)
  88. Swabs, hairs, blood sample, fingernails
  89. Locard was actually a forensic geologist, sample earthen materials that have been transferred between objects and analyze for origins or sources.
  90. 16 total, used in St. Louis
  91. Double helix, 2 coiled DNA strands. Composed of nucleotides- containing a sugar molecule (Deoxyribose), phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing group.
  92. discovered that there are 4 diff kinds of human blood based on the presence or absence of specific antigens found on the surface of the red blood cells.
  93. .05 cc, range from.03cc to.15cc. Dependent upon the surface or orifice from which it originates. Impact area=target
  94. 80% of people are this. Their blood-type antigens are found in high concentration in their body fluids.
  95. DNA evidence taken from his grave site was compared to 2 descendants of James' sister and found to match almost exactly.
  96. Forensic Anthro- Anthony Falsetti
    Medical Examiner- Baden
  97. Hard, transparent, composed of silica, brittle, exhibits conchoidal fracture. Vary kinds
  98. Image is recognizable and may be identifiable with a particular object (knife on jeans, boot bloody footprint)
  99. Match- DNA profile appears the same.
    Exclusion- Genotype comparison shows profile differences that can only be explained by the 2 samples originating from different sources.
    Inconclusive- The data does not support a conclusion as to whether the profiles match.
  100. Can be found in all body cells- blood, semen, saliva, urine, hair, teeth, bone, tissue. Most abundant in our buccal (cheek) cells
  101. Density, Refractive index, fractures, color, thickness, fluorescence, markings
  102. Compared mtDNA of unknown soldier with Blassie's mom and sister and found a match.
  103. 50 from scalp, 24 pubic hairs
  104. A field of forensic study which deals with the physical properties of blood and the patterns produced under diff conditions as a result of various forces being applied to the blood. It follows the laws of physics.
  105. How often something occurs in nature or the "real world".
  106. Fluid portion of the blood (55%)
  107. 1986- first trial to admit DNA in the U.S. Jeff Ashton was the prosecture, first one to prosecute a DNA case.
  108. O
  109. A non-blood bearing object moves through a wet bloodstain, altering the appearance of the original stain(blood already there, put your hair on it and move/change the blood stain)
  110. Part of the hair that sticks out of the skin
  111. Only 1 sources for the transfer material where contact took place, contamination of different materials from surface one to surface two, characterize the material with DNA. otherwise all class
  112. 23 pairs of chromosomes with one set coming from mom and one set coming from dad. First 22 are autosome, last pair are sex chromosomes
  113. Any small pieces of material, manmade or naturally occurring (animal, plant, or mineral). These include hair, fibers, glass, soil, sand, plant material.
  114. Blood mainly composed of red blood cells with no nuclei, therefore no DNA. DNA from white blood cells
  115. May be present on the red blood cell; positive if present, negative if not
  116. Father of modern bloodstain pattern analysis. 50 cases, OJ, Sen. Rob Kennedy and MLK Jr.
  117. Adenine

    A to T and G to C
  118. Measuring diameter of the medulla, dividing it by the diameter of the hair, for humans less than 1/3, animals greater than 1/2
  119. BC fast, abundant throughout genome, variable, small size,use of small amounts of DNA, inherited independently from mom and dad.
  120. Radical cracks form a right angle on the reverse side of the force
  121. Separating the strands of DNA by heating
  122. First blow causes bleeding. Subsequent blows contaminate weapon with blood, which is ___ tangentially to arc of upswing or backswing.
    Depends on type of weapon, amount of blood adhering to weapon, length of arc
  123. Attaching the primers
  124. Location of the blood source can be determined by drawing lines from the various blood droplets to the point where they intersect.
  125. Victim to undergo medical examination asap, physical evidence like clothes, hairs, vaginal and rectal swabs must be collected and sent to lab. Bedding too
  126. Distance between target surface and origin of blood/point of origin of the blood/movement and direction of a person or object/number of blows, etc/type and direction of impact that produced blood/position and movement of the victim during or after bloodshed
  127. O-45
  128. 3% of human DNA sequences code for proteins. 97 is non-coding and repetitive. 50% of human genome has interspersed repetitive sequences.
  129. Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis- based on absorption of wavelength of light
  130. Only if the soil has an unusual characteristic such as pollen, seeds, vegetation, or fragments.
  131. A substance that can stimulate the body to make antibodies. Certain of these (proteins) found in the plasma of the red blood cell's membrane account for blood type
  132. Depends mostly on nature of target surface (texture, porous or nonporous). Size is related to distance fallen, lil change in spot diameter beyond a fall distance of 1.2m(7ft)