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132 Matching questions

  1. Class Characteristics of Glass
  2. Questions Answered by Blood Spatter Interpretation
  3. DNA Typing
  4. Class characteristic Soil
  5. PCR Denaturation
  6. Presumptive Tests for Blood Determination
  7. Jesse James
  8. Follicle
  9. Forensic Botany
  10. Y- chromosome Analysis
  11. Individual Characteristics Sand
  12. Radial fracture pattern
  13. Cast-off from Weapon
  14. Extention
  15. Class characteristics Sand
  16. Hair Shape
  17. Blood Spatter Evidence
  18. Shirley Duguay
  19. Fiber Individual Characteristics
  20. Physical Evidence from the victim
  21. Probative value of soil
  22. Uses for DNA profiling
  23. Physical Evidence from the suspect
  24. CODI
  25. RFLP
  26. ABO blood group
  27. Thrombocytes
  28. Population Distribution of Blood Types in the U.S.
  29. Plant DNA
  30. DNA Body Locations
  31. Evidence
  32. Herbert L MacDonelll
  33. Directionality
  34. Antibody
  35. Shape and Size of Bloodspot
  36. Tommy Lee Andrews
  37. Innocence Project
  38. Hair Shaft
  39. John M. Butler
  40. Hair Growth Terminology
  41. High velocity
  42. Associative value
  43. DNA
  44. Blood Droplet Volume
  45. Kary Mullis
  46. Shape of a blood stain
  47. Point of Origin
  48. Fiber
  49. COfiler
  50. Human hair
  51. Hair cuticle- scales
  52. Karl Landstein
  53. STR process
  54. GRIM
  55. PCR
  56. Paul Kirk
  57. Tranfer
  58. Concentric
  59. Individual characteristic
  60. STR Detection Methods
  61. Karyotype
  62. Medullary index
  63. Determining Human from Animal Blood
  64. Fabric
  65. STR
  66. Erythrocytes
  67. James Watson and Francis Crick
  68. Shaft
  69. Determination of Seminal Fluid
  70. Sperm
  71. Leukocytes
  72. 4 Bases
  73. Root
  74. Refractive index
  75. Testing for Identification Fibers
  76. Secretors
  77. Swipe
  78. 3 Possible Outcomes
  79. Glass
  80. Rape Evidence
  81. Soil
  82. Becke line
  83. Seperation of STR Fragments
  84. Impact
  85. Point of Convergence
  86. Trace evidence-
  87. Sand
  88. Universal Donor Blood Type
  89. Non-Coding
  90. Sally Hemmings
  91. Plasma
  92. STR preferred
  93. Hair IDS
  94. Bloodstain Transfer
  95. Probability
  96. Product rule
  97. 3R rule
  98. Alleles
  99. Rh factor
  100. Mitochondrial DNA
  101. Y chromosomes and mtDNA
  102. Hair individual characteristc
  103. Annealing
  104. Nuclear DNA
  105. Wipe
  106. Probative Value
  107. Agglutination
  108. Dr. Leon Lattes
  109. Colin Pitchfork
  110. Blood DNA
  111. Electrophoresis
  112. Control sample of hairs
  113. Sereology
  114. FTIR
  115. Pointed end of the blood stain
  116. Palynology
  117. Identifiler
  118. Profiler
  119. Unknown Soldier
  120. Blood Droplet Characteristics
  121. Blood Volume
  122. People working on Romanovs
  123. Target Surface Texture
  124. Terminal velocity
  125. Low velocity
  126. Antigen
  127. Properties of Blood
  128. Alec Jeffreys
  129. Glass crack rules
  130. Universal Recipient Blood Type
  131. Medium velocity
  132. Class characteristics of Hair
  1. a Depends mostly on nature of target surface (texture, porous or nonporous). Size is related to distance fallen, lil change in spot diameter beyond a fall distance of 1.2m(7ft)
  2. b Male's underwear, pubic hair, head hair, penile swab, blood sample. Also maybe transfer of blood, semen, saliva, hairs, and fibers
  3. c 1985 isolated DNA markers and called them DNA fingerprints. Credited with the DNA profiling using RFLP.
  4. d Immersion method- lowered into liquids whose refractive index is different
    Match point- when the refractive index of the glass is equal to that of the liquid
  5. e Any small pieces of material, manmade or naturally occurring (animal, plant, or mineral). These include hair, fibers, glass, soil, sand, plant material.
  6. f 1985 developed PCR testing, Nobel Prize winner.
  7. g To identify potential suspects, to exonerate individuals, to identify crime and casualty victims, to establish paternity, to match organ donors.
  8. h Person walking, free-falling drops, dripping, splashing, arterial spurting
  9. i Found in cytoplasm, inherited only from mother, Each cell contains hundreds of mitochondria. Can be found in skeletal remains. (rigorous, much time, costly, no database) Constructed in a circular pattern. Best used when nuclear DNA typing is not available.
  10. j Glass Refractive Index Measurement- a computer attached to a video system that views the glass fragments as heat is applied to the liquid medium in a hot stage. The match point tempt is converted to a refractive index using data from the computer.
  11. k An electrical current moves through a substance causing molecules to sort by size. Smaller,lighter molecules move the furthest on the gel. (Run the gel, observe and compare bands of DNA)
  12. l Hitchhiker killed, man denies it. But seeds in his car match only one tree.
  13. m Density, Refractive index, fractures, color, thickness, fluorescence, markings
  14. n More acute the angle, the more elongated the stain.
    90 perfectly round, 80 takes on more elliptical shape.
    30, produces tail.
  15. o A field of forensic study which deals with the physical properties of blood and the patterns produced under diff conditions as a result of various forces being applied to the blood. It follows the laws of physics.
  16. p Study of pollen and spores. Variation in size and weight, dispersal pattern and produced in given area.
  17. q Red blood cells; responsible for oxygen distribution. MOST NUMEROUS. No nucleus-no DNA
  18. r # of kinds of earth material is unlimited, changes rapidly over short distances, wide distributions, evidential value. This value increases with rare minerals, rocks, fossil, manufactured particles
  19. s Match- DNA profile appears the same.
    Exclusion- Genotype comparison shows profile differences that can only be explained by the 2 samples originating from different sources.
    Inconclusive- The data does not support a conclusion as to whether the profiles match.
  20. t O-45
    A-40
    B-11
    AB-4
  21. u A substance that can stimulate the body to make antibodies. Certain of these (proteins) found in the plasma of the red blood cell's membrane account for blood type
  22. v Study of plant material and relationship to crime scene investigation. (plant remains can be found almost everywhere, offers macro/microscopic evidence, structure allows identification of the plant and allows gathering of info)
  23. w White blood cells; responsible for "cleaning" the system of foreign invaders. LARGEST, LEAST NUMEROUS. Nucleus-DNA
  24. x Based on having A, B, both or none of the factors on the red blood cell
  25. y Deals with the examination and analysis of blood fluids, including saliva, semen, urine, and blood.
  26. z Microscopic survey: different cellular characteristics
    Precipitin test- blood injected into rabbit, withdrawn and tested
    Characteristic Differences: types and sizes of cells
    (Frogs- larger nucleic red blood cells)
  27. aa Never lead to one individual, but narrowed down
  28. ab If DNA is available, from root. Everything is class, even mtDNA which can come from the shaft
  29. ac The greatest speed to which a free falling drop of blood can accelerate in air. It is dependent upon the acceleration of gravity and the friction of the air against the blood
  30. ad Separating the strands of DNA by heating
  31. ae Electrophoresis- Fragments separated on basis of mass/change. Gel or Capillary- cause the DNA molecules to move up through the machine
  32. af Found in the nucleus, constitutes 23 pairs of chromosome from both parents. Each cell only contains one nuclei.
  33. ag Platelets; tiny; responsible for blood clotting SMALLEST
  34. ah faces the direction the stain is traveling
  35. ai Class evidence, probative value, common trace element, compare physical and chemical characteristics
  36. aj BC fast, abundant throughout genome, variable, small size,use of small amounts of DNA, inherited independently from mom and dad.
  37. ak Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis- based on absorption of wavelength of light
  38. al Attaching the primers
  39. am Invented a way to test for antibodies in dried blood flakes in 1932: Absorption-elution
  40. an Where the "blow" occurs. 3D. Determined by drawing a line from area of intersection straight up to where the angle of impact would intersect.
  41. ao Professor of Criminalistics, wrote book that contained a chapter in which he discussed the application of blood stain pattern analysis to criminal investigators. Instrumental in Sheppard's case based on blood stain pattern photos
  42. ap Group of college law students work on cases where DNA may prove innocence (or guilt). Exornerate the wrongly convicted throughout post conviction DNA testing; and develop the implement reforms to prevent wrongful convictions. 318 exonerated
  43. aq Blood stain patterns are considered circumstantial. Not 100% exact, there are some things people can read into that others don't see. Still important if person doing the analysis has some credibility.
  44. ar Thomas Jefferson's property, did she have his child? Yes, genetic link between Jefferson and Hemings descendants. Could have been any male Jefferson, this was all run by STR.
  45. as Harder, less porous the surface-less drop breaks apart
    Hard, smooth surface- little or not distortion around the edge
  46. at Double helix, 2 coiled DNA strands. Composed of nucleotides- containing a sugar molecule (Deoxyribose), phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing group.
  47. au 10
  48. av O
  49. aw Forensic Anthro- Anthony Falsetti
    Medical Examiner- Baden
    Odontologist-
  50. ax 16 total, used in St. Louis
  51. ay Circular lines around the point of impact; begins on the same side as the force
  52. az Fluid portion of the blood (55%)
  53. ba AB
  54. bb Radiate out front the origin of the impact; begins on opposite side of force
  55. bc First blow causes bleeding. Subsequent blows contaminate weapon with blood, which is ___ tangentially to arc of upswing or backswing.
    Depends on type of weapon, amount of blood adhering to weapon, length of arc
  56. bd How often something occurs in nature or the "real world".
  57. be Arrested and his DNA profiled matched the semen from both murders in England. 1988 he was sentenced to life for the 2 murders.
  58. bf Polymerase Chain Reaction- technique for making many copies of a defined segment of a DNA molecule.
  59. bg Locard was actually a forensic geologist, sample earthen materials that have been transferred between objects and analyze for origins or sources.
  60. bh Type of soil may have similar characteristics at the primary and/or secondary crime scene, on the suspect or on the victim.
  61. bi discovered that there are 4 diff kinds of human blood based on the presence or absence of specific antigens found on the surface of the red blood cells.
  62. bj 1986- first trial to admit DNA in the U.S. Jeff Ashton was the prosecture, first one to prosecute a DNA case.
  63. bk 50 from scalp, 24 pubic hairs
  64. bl Wet blood is transferred to a surface which did not first have blood on it. (fade out towards end)
  65. bm A method in which DNA is converted into a series of bands that ultimately distinguishes each individual
  66. bn A substance that reacts with an antigen
  67. bo May be present on the red blood cell; positive if present, negative if not
  68. bp Among the smallest and most highly specialized cells in the human body; head and tail, 23 chromosomes with the genetic material in the head
  69. bq Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. (Isolation, Cutting, Sorting, Analyzing)
  70. br Cuticle- outside covering, made up of overlapping scales
    Cortex- outer layer made of keratin and imbedded with pigment; also contains air sacs called cortical fuss
    Medulla- inside layer running downy the center of the cortex (Continuous, intermittent, fragmented, absent)
  71. bs Measuring diameter of the medulla, dividing it by the diameter of the hair, for humans less than 1/3, animals greater than 1/2
  72. bt Structure from which the hair grows
  73. bu (shadow that appears around an object immersed in a liquid) Disappears and there is minimal difference between he glass and the liquid
  74. bv Imbricate- Flattened
    Coronal- Crown-like
    Spinous- petal-like
    ALL IMBRICATE ARE NOT HUMAN, ALL HUMAN ARE IMBRICATE
  75. bw Age and sex cannot determined (sex can be if DNA analysis of root tissue is present). Hair root with follicular tissue can indicate if hair was pulled out forcibly
  76. bx Natural particles with a grain diameter, color and contents is dependent upon the parent rock and surrounding plant and animal life.
  77. by Adding the dNTPs and duplicating the DNA
  78. bz High velocity projectile leaders wider hole on exit side of glass Cracks terminate at their intersections with others.
  79. ca Lies below the epidermis
  80. cb Clumping of red blood cells; will result if blood types with different antigens are mixed
  81. cc Silver staining (gel only), Fluorescence detection. STR Genotypes visualized on electropherogram.
  82. cd On average, account for 8% of total body weight
  83. ce 80% of people are this. Their blood-type antigens are found in high concentration in their body fluids.
  84. cf Father of modern bloodstain pattern analysis. 50 cases, OJ, Sen. Rob Kennedy and MLK Jr.
  85. cg Blood mainly composed of red blood cells with no nuclei, therefore no DNA. DNA from white blood cells
  86. ch Adenine
    Cytosine
    Guanine
    Thymine

    A to T and G to C
  87. ci Most frequently found pieces of evidence at the scene of a violent crime. Provide a link bet went the criminal and the act. Can determine: Human or animal, race, origin, manner in which hair is removed, treated hair, drugs
  88. cj Used to place a suspect at a crime.
  89. ck Made of fibers and fibers are made of twisted filaments
    Natural- animal, vegetable, or inorganic sources (silk, cotton, wool, cashmere)
    Artificial- synthesized or created from altered natural sources (polyester, nylon, etc)
  90. cl Case where Beamish was convicted when a leather jacket was found with victim's blood and 27 strand of white cat hair. Beamish had this white cat
  91. cm Hard, transparent, composed of silica, brittle, exhibits conchoidal fracture. Vary kinds
  92. cn Can be found in all body cells- blood, semen, saliva, urine, hair, teeth, bone, tissue. Most abundant in our buccal (cheek) cells
  93. co depends on cross-section being round (straight) oval (curly) or crescent (kinky)
  94. cp 23 pairs of chromosomes with one set coming from mom and one set coming from dad. First 22 are autosome, last pair are sex chromosomes
  95. cq Baseball bat
  96. cr 3% of human DNA sequences code for proteins. 97 is non-coding and repetitive. 50% of human genome has interspersed repetitive sequences.
  97. cs Acid phosphatase color test, Prostate Specific Antigen
  98. ct 1953 discovered the configuration of the DNA molecule
  99. cu Part of the hair that sticks out of the skin
  100. cv Only if the sand has an unusual characteristic
  101. cw Round- falls straight down at 90 degree angle
    Elliptical- Blood droplet elongates as the angle decreases from 90 to 0
    Formula: width/angle length=sine of the impact
  102. cx Composition is based material of the source; gives sand its color
    texture is determined by the way the source was transported. (grain size, shape, sorting)
  103. cy Victim to undergo medical examination asap, physical evidence like clothes, hairs, vaginal and rectal swabs must be collected and sent to lab. Bedding too
  104. cz THE leading expert on DNA Typing.
  105. da .05 cc, range from.03cc to.15cc. Dependent upon the surface or orifice from which it originates. Impact area=target
  106. db Anagen- hair that is growing
    Catagen- hair at rest
    Telogen- hair that is dying, up to 2 to 6 months
    1 half inch per month
  107. dc 7, partner to profiler, first and last are repeats as double check.
  108. dd Combined DNA Index System, used for linking serial crimes and unsolved cases with repeat offenders. Links all 50 states, requires >4 RFLP and/or 13 core STR markers
  109. de Location of the blood source can be determined by drawing lines from the various blood droplets to the point where they intersect.
  110. df Every gene has at least 2 of these, one from mom and one from dad.
  111. dg Radical cracks form a right angle on the reverse side of the force
  112. dh Gunshot. (Back-spatter from entry wound, forward-spatter from exit wound); fine mist appearance
  113. di A non-blood bearing object moves through a wet bloodstain, altering the appearance of the original stain(blood already there, put your hair on it and move/change the blood stain)
  114. dj Short Tandem Repeats, latest method of DNA typing. Locations (loci) not the chromosome that contains short sequences of 3 to 7 bases that repeat themselves with the DNA molecule.
  115. dk Relates to the direction a drop of blood traveled in space from its point of origin
  116. dl 40 % blood volume loss (exsangunation) for death, which is 5-6 liters for males and 4-5 for females.
  117. dm Only if the soil has an unusual characteristic such as pollen, seeds, vegetation, or fragments.
  118. dn Extract the gene from the sample. Amplify sample by means of PCR. Separate by electrophoresis. Examine the dissonance the STR migrates to determine the # of repeats. Continue process with other STRs from other genes.
  119. do When a bloody object comes into contact with a surface and leaves a patterned blood image on the surface.
  120. dp Image is recognizable and may be identifiable with a particular object (knife on jeans, boot bloody footprint)
  121. dq Y chromosome is the only one without a partner. It is alone and recombines with itself. Most of the Y chromosome, passes almost unchanged from generation to generation.
  122. dr The level at which evidence provides proof of the crime.
  123. ds Distance between target surface and origin of blood/point of origin of the blood/movement and direction of a person or object/number of blows, etc/type and direction of impact that produced blood/position and movement of the victim during or after bloodshed
  124. dt -Will remain spherical in space until it drops onto a surface
    - Once it impacts a surface, bloodstain is formed.
    -Droplet falling from same height, hitting surface at same angle, will produce a stain with the same basic shape.
  125. du DNA evidence taken from his grave site was compared to 2 descendants of James' sister and found to match almost exactly.
  126. dv Only 1 sources for the transfer material where contact took place, contamination of different materials from surface one to surface two, characterize the material with DNA. otherwise all class
  127. dw Compared mtDNA of unknown soldier with Blassie's mom and sister and found a match.
  128. dx Color, length, diameter, distribution of pigments, scale types, absence or pre scene of medulla type pattern index
  129. dy Kastle-Meyer color test//Microcystalline tests//Leucomalachite test//Luminol test
  130. dz Microscopic observation- color and fiber surfaces
    Burning- how fibers burn, the odor and appearance of residue
    Thermal decomposition- gently heating to break down the fabric to their monomers
    Chemical testing- solubility and decomposition
    Density- mass of object divided by volume of object
    Refractive Index- measuring the bending of a ray of light as it passes from air into solid/liquid
    Flurosence- comparing fibers of common origin
  131. ea Swabs, hairs, blood sample, fingernails
  132. eb By increasing the # of alleles on different loci, the prob of having 2 people with the exact combination becomes astronomical.