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  1. restriction enzyme
  2. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  3. tandem repeat
  4. sequencing
  5. short tandem repeat (STR)
  6. low copy number
  7. replication
  8. Y-STRs
  9. buccal cells
  10. mitochondria
  11. amelogenin gene
  12. hybridization
  13. chromosome
  14. substrate control
  15. electrophoresis
  16. polymer
  17. polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  18. epithelial cells
  19. multiplexing
  20. nucleotide
  21. human genome
  22. primer
  23. complementary base pairing
  24. picogram
  25. touch DNA
  26. amino acids
  27. proteins
  1. a short tandem repeats located on the human Y chromosome
  2. b DNA from skin cellls transferred onto the surface of an object by simple contact
  3. c the process of joining two complementary strands of DNA to form a double-stranded molecule
  4. d small structures outside the nucleus that supply energy to the cell
  5. e a procedure used to determine the order of the base pairs that constitute DNA
  6. f the specific pairing of base A with T and base C with G in double-stranded DNA
  7. g the order of bases on all twenty-three pairs of human chromosomes
  8. h chemical that acts as scissors to cut DNA molecules at specific locations
  9. i the synthesis of new DNA from existing DNA
  10. j one-trillionth of a gram, or 0.000000000001 gram
  11. k a threadlike structure in the cell nucleus, along which the genes are located
  12. l fewer than eighteen DNA-bearing cells
  13. m a region of a DNA molecule that contains short segments of three to seven repeating base pairs
  14. n a technique that simultaneously detects more that one DNA marker in a single analysis
  15. o a short strand of DNA used to target a region of DNA for replication by PCR
  16. p a region of a chromosome that contains multiple copies of a core DNA sequence that are arranged in a repeating fashion
  17. q the molecules that carry the body's genetic information
  18. r the outer layer of skin cells
  19. s a technique for separating molecules through their migration on a support medium while under the influence of an electrical potential.
  20. t polymers of amino acids that play basic roles in the structures and functions of living things
  21. u a repeating unit of DNA consisting of one of four bases - adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine -- attached to a phosphate-sugar group
  22. v a genetic locus useful for determining gender
  23. w a substance composed of a large number of atoms; these atoms are usually arranged in repeating units, or monomers
  24. x the building blocks of proteins
  25. y cells from the inner cheek lining
  26. z an unstained object adjacent to an area on which biological material has been deposited
  27. aa a technique for replicating or copying a portion of a DNA strand outside a living cell.