Forensic Science Test Prep flashcards |

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  • Crime scene processing is the same as crime scene investigation.

    False

    Which crimes do we place more investigative emphasis on?

    Crimes against people

    Which of the following is a search pattern?

    grid

    photographs of crime secenes must include overall views, close ups, and _______?

    midrange

    crime scene documentation methods do not include:

    cell phone records

    what can affect how you prepare to conduct a crime scene investigation?

    location, weather, time of day

    according to lecture, what is the first thing a first responder should do at a major crime scene?

    search for and detain the suspect

    types of crime sketches include

    preliminary, cross projection, smooth

    the rough sketch that is usually prepared at a crime scene is used to

    precisely locate evidence

    you should only document what you see

    false

    which is not a type of glass discussed in class?

    borosilicate

    a blood spatter pattern consisting of a large number of very fine, mist-like droplets indicates that the blood probably came from a

    gunshot wound

    which is not one of the categories of patters we discussed in chapter 4

    individualizing, reconstruction, sequencing. and these are all patters for analysis

    a swipe bloodstain pattern is the result of

    a bloody object in motion contacting another clean surface

    blood spatter patterns can indicate

    how many sources of blood there were, what type of weapon was used, the number of times a weapon was used

    the ______ the droplet, the ______the force that was used to create the spatter

    smaller, the greater

    when a fracture line in glass hits a pre-existing fracture line it....

    stops

    which is NOT a variable to cinsider when examining blood patterns?

    blood alcohol level when blood is shed

    gunshot residue:

    does not travel a great distance

    most reconstruction patterns are easily transported to the lab for further analysis

    false

    this is not a fundamental principle of fingerprinting

    fingerprints are formed when someone is about five years old

    this type of fingerprint is a three dimensional impression

    plastic

    the basic fingerprint class patterns are:

    arches, loops, and whorls

    fingerprints change over the course of a person's lifetime

    false

    common fingerprint minutiae include

    dots, bifurcations, islands

    the fingerprint database is called:

    AFIS

    chemical methods for the development of latent fingerprints include

    iodine fuming

    the ACE-V method of print identification involves

    analysis, comparison, evaluation, and verification

    unknown fingerprints are entered into the data base as:

    forensic files

    individualizing friction ridge detail also exists on your

    palms, fingers, and toes

    a person's ____ is usually more distinctive than their normal handwriting

    signature

    when collecting document evidence, it is important to carefully protect the document to avoid

    loss of possible DNA, loss of possible indentations, loss of possible latent print evidence

    questioned document examiners prefer to work with copies so they do not damage the original document

    false

    writing instruments include

    ball point pens, spray cans, paint brushes

    natural variation in a person's handwriting is ___ when compared to the variation between individuals

    always less

    collected writing samples should be

    authenticated and from an appropriate time period.

    the three parts of the writing process that can yield useful information are

    writing surface, writing instrument, and transfer medium

    handwriting comparisons can be made using

    how letters are made, where pressure is applied, and connections between letters

    indented writings on evidence can be visualized with an instrument called

    an Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA)

    It is not possible to examine a document to see what printer or copier it could have originated from

    false

    sliding a tool into the surface makes an indented tool mark

    false

    the four components of a firearm cartridge are

    the primer, the propellant, the cartridge, and the barrel

    toolmark examinations may provide the following information

    the kind of tool used to make the mark

    the caliber of a weapon is

    the inside diameter of a gun barrel

    gunshot residue is characterized by the presence of the elements

    lead, barium, and antimony

    class characteristics of a firearm detectable from a fired bullet include

    the direction of the twist of the barrel of the gun

    the depressed helical grooves in a bullet are called

    land impressions

    which type of test is frequently done with recovered firearms to evaluate the possibility of accidental discharge?

    trigger pull test

    gunshot residue (GSR) testing can be difficult to perform because...

    GSR particles do not travel far, can be washed off and only last a few hours

    pushing a tool into the surface makes a striated tool mark

    false

    you are using phenolphthalein to test a reddish brown stain for the presence of blood. When you put a drop of phenolphthalein on the swab with your sample, it turns pink immediately. This test is:

    invalid because it turned pink

    The "Christmas Tree Stain" is a confirmatory test for

    sperm

    What anticoagulant compound was found in blood samples in the OJ simpson case?

    EDTA

    Wet blood stains should be collected by

    swabbing

    a substrate control sample helps to detect

    interference resulting in false negatives/positives

    in forensic biology, screening tests

    may give false positives

    in forensic biology, confirmatory tests

    can determine a sample to the exclusion of all other possibilities

    screening tests for semen are based on detecting the enzyme

    acid phosphatase

    there is a useful confirmatory test for the presence of saliva

    false

    how would you interpret the ABA test on the page?

    invalid

    what is detrimental to the survival of DNA?

    bacteria, heat, moisture

    what happened to the initial suspect in the Yates murder case?

    he began a scholarship fund after winning a slander lawsuit

    you have the same mitochondrial DNA as your

    sibling

    genetic differences among people that enable them to be distinguished are called genetic ___?

    polymorphisms

    the majority of DNA is

    non-coding

    the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a process which

    makes many copies of a specific piece of DNA

    what happened in the steven lawrence murder that generally cannot occur in the United States

    he was tried again for the same crime

    in a strand of DNA, cytosine (C) complementary pairs with

    Guanine (G)

    The national DNA database is called

    CODIS

    Y-STR tests are designed to specifically identify

    male DNA profiles

    the fire triangle includes heat, fuel, and _____?

    oxygen

    Chemical reactions that give off heat are called

    exothermic reactions

    the most common instrument used to give an indication of the type of accelerant used to start a fire is

    gas chromatography

    The lowest temperature at which there is enough vapor to be ignited is called the

    flash point

    the process by which solid materials are decomposed by heat, forming smaller molecules that can support flaming combustion is called

    pyrolysis

    in order to have a flaming combustion, both the fuel and the oxygen must be in the

    gaseous state

    the method for separating and concentrating ingnitable liquids that uses a syringe to collect samples is the

    heated headspace method

    substrate samples collected from the scene of a suspicious fire should be taken from

    burned and unburned areas

    a flammable liquid that was used to state a fire is called

    an accelerant

    the point of origin of a fire can often be determined by examination of burn patters in what pattern?

    a vee shape

    the synthetic opiate we discussed in class that was unknowingly injected by drug users and caused near instant death was

    fentanyl

    drug dependency is subdivided into two categories

    psychological and physiological

    narcotic drugs are

    analgesics

    which is not a growth phase of hair

    anagen

    angel dust or PCP is what kind of drug

    hallucinogen

    alcohol is an example of a

    depressant

    which of the following is not a hallucinogenic drug: marijuana, PCP, or LSD

    they all are

    shed head hair has

    mtDNA only

    it is possible to individualize trace evidence.

    False

    which is the most abused drug on the world

    ethanol

    which case does not generally require an autopsy?

    a 78 year old heart attack victim who died at the hospital

    there is a scientific way to precisely determine the time of death

    false

    the settling of blood in dependent areas post mortem is called

    livor mortis

    the buildup of lactic acid that causes muscle stiffness post mortem is called

    rigor mortis

    the decomposition of blood in subcutaneous blood vessels causes an artifact called

    marbling

    the change in body temperature post mortem is called

    algor mortis

    how many hours post mortem does rigor mortis become fully present?

    12

    according to Ms. Clark's lecture, what body part is often missing from a body found in the wild?

    Lower jaw

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