Forensic Science Alternative Assignment flashcards |

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  • analytical skills

    the ability to identify a concept or problem, to organize information for decision making, to establish criteria for evaluation, and to draw appropriate conclusions

    deductive reasoning

    Deriving testable predictions about specific cases from general principles

    eyewitness

    a spectator who can describe what happened

    fact

    a concept whose truth can be proved

    forensic

    referring to legal proceedings or formal debate or rhetoric

    logical

    capable of or reflecting the capability for correct and valid reasoning

    observation

    the act of making and recording a measurement

    opinion

    a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty

    perception

    becoming aware of something via the senses

    chain of custody

    A list that records every official person who handles a piece of evidence. Those in the chain put their initials and the date on the evidence container.

    circumstantial evidence

    evidence providing only a basis for inference about the fact in dispute

    class evidence

    material that can be associated with a group of items that share properties or characteristics ex jeans

    crime scene investigation

    a multidisciplinary approach in which scientific and legal professionals work togther to solve a crime

    crime scene reconstruction

    a hypothesis of the sequence of events from before the crime was committed through its commission

    direct evidence

    something that proves the fact without a doubt

    first responder

    the first police officer to arrive at a crime scene

    individual evidence

    a kind of evidence that identifies a particular person or thing

    paper bindle

    a folded paper used to hold trace evidence

    primary crime scene

    the location of a crime or accident

    secondary crime scene

    an alternate location where additional evidence may be found

    trace evidence

    small but measurable amounts of physical or biological material found at a crime scene

    Locard's Exchange Principle

    contact between individuals and locations that leads to the exchange of trace evidence

    Seven S's of Crime Scene Investigation

    secure the scene , separate the witness, scan the scene, see, sketch, search, secure evidence

    Comparison Microscope

    A microscope that has two compound light microscopes with an optical bridge, so that two samples can be viewed in a single eyepiece. It is used to match trace evidence such as fibers and bullet casings.

    cortex

    Middle layer of the hair, afibrous protein core formed by elongated cells containing melanin pigment

    cuticle

    outermost layer of hair

    hair follicle

    a small organ in the dermis layer of the skin that produces hair

    keratin

    hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair, and nails

    medulla

    Central core of hair, consisting of large cells

    melanin

    insoluble pigments that account for the color of e.g. skin and scales and feathers

    neutron activation analysis

    A PROCEDURE THAT USES POSITRONS TO DETECT MANY DIFFERENT MEDICAL DISORDERS

    medullary index

    measures the diameter of the medulla relative to the diameter of the hair shaft (humans less than 1/3, others more than 1/3)

    anagen stage

    earliest stage of hair growth

    catagen stage

    middle stage of hair growth

    telogen stage

    late stage hair growth

    Interrupted pattern

    pigmented line broken at several intervals

    segmented pattern

    pigmented line unevenly spaced

    solid pattern

    pigmented area filling both the medulla and the cortex

    continuous pattern

    one unbroken line of color

    fluorescence

    hair dyes can make hair glow under a certain light

    follicular tag

    A translucent piece of tissue surrounding the hair's shaft near the root. It contains the richest source of DNA associated with hair.

    amorphous

    having no definite form or distinct shape

    crystalline

    consisting of or containing or of the nature of crystals

    direct transfer

    the transfer of evidence from vicitm to suspect or vice versa

    fiber

    a slender and greatly elongated solid substance

    mineral fiber

    a collection of mineral crystals formed into a recognizable pattern

    monomer

    a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

    polymer

    large compound formed from combinations of many monomers

    natural fiber

    fibers that come from plants or hair of animals

    synthetic fiber

    fibers manufactured from substances such as wood pulp, petroleum or natural gas

    secondary transfer

    the transfer of evidence from a source (ex carpet) to a person (suspect) and then to another person (victim)

    textile

    artifact made by weaving or felting or knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibers

    yarn

    a fine cord of twisted fibers (of cotton or silk or wool or nylon etc.) used in sewing and weaving

    animal fibers

    fiber derived from animals

    plant fibers

    1 of most useful plant materials (makes cloth, roper, paper, etc.)

    seed fibers

    fiber derived from a pod of a seed (ex cotton)

    fruit fibers

    Coir is a coarse fiber derived from the covering of coconuts

    stem fibers

    hemp, jute & flax

    regenerated fiber

    fibers derived from cellulose

    leaf fibers

    manila is a fiber derived from abaca leaves

    polyester

    a complex ester used for making fibers or resins or plastics or as a plasticizer

    nylon

    a man-made material, made form chemicals. Breaks down in light

    acrylic

    used especially by artists

    olefins

    used in high-performance clothes, like hiking socks

    cotton

    erect bushy mallow plant or small tree bearing bolls containing seeds with many long hairy fibers

    flax

    plant from which linen is made

    silk

    fibers from worm cocoons provide threads for knitting

    wool

    outer coat of especially sheep and yaks

    plain weave

    The simplest weave in which the weft (crosswise) yarn is passed over then under each warp (lengthwise) yarn.

    basket weave

    a cloth woven of two or more threads interlaced to suggest the weave of a basket

    satin weave

    a weave in which the filling and warp threads intersect in such a way as to give a smooth compact surface with no distinguishable twill line

    twill weave

    a weave in which the filling strand goes over and under several warp strands, creating diagonal ridges across the fabric.

    leno weave

    warp yarns do not like parallel to each other. Warp yarns work in groups, usually pairs. Warp yarns cross over each other and the filling is inserted in between

    angiosperm

    Flowering plant

    exine

    the outer coating of a pollen spore

    forensic palynology

    the science of studying pollen & spores to help solve crimes

    gymnosperm

    seed plant that bears its seeds directly on the surfaces of cones

    pistil

    The female reproductive part of a flower

    stigma

    sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land

    style

    (botany) the narrow elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma

    ovary

    a structure containing egg cells; the base of a pistil in a flower

    ovule

    the inner part of an ovary that contains an egg

    pollen fingerprint

    the number & type of pollen grains found in a geographic area at a particlur time of year

    pollen grain

    male gamete in seed plants

    pollination

    transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure

    spore

    a tiny cell that is able to grow into a new organism

    cross pollination

    pollen from one flower transferred to the sticky stigma of another flower

    self-pollination

    pollen from one flower transferred to the sticky stigma of the same plant

    stamen

    The male reproductive part of a flower

    anther

    Produces Pollen

    filament

    the stalk of a stamen

    sepal

    a leaflike structure that encloses the bud of a flower

    petiole

    The stalk of a leaf, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem.

    perfect flower

    has both male/female reproductive parts

    arch

    a fingerprint pattern in which the ridge pattern originates from one side of the print and leaves from the other

    core

    the center of a fingerprint loop or whorl

    delta

    a triangular ridge pattern with ridges that go in different directions above & below a triangle

    fingerprint

    a smudge made by a (dirty) finger

    latent fingerprint

    A fingerprint made by deposits of oils and/or perspiration, not usually visible to the human eye.

    loop

    a fingerprint pattern in which the ridge pattern flows inward and returns in the direction of the origin

    minutiae

    the combination of details in the shapes & positions of ridge patterns that make each fingerprint unique

    patent fingerprint

    a visible fingerprint that happens when a finger has blood, ink, or some other substance on it

    plastic fingerprint

    a three-dimensional fingerprint made in soft material such as clay

    ridge pattern

    recognizable pattern of ridges in a fingerprint

    ten card

    a form used to record and preserve a person's fingerprints

    whorl

    a fingerprint pattern that resembles a bull's-eye

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