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111 True/False questions

  1. Unlimited liability means that all debts attributable to a business can be the responsibility of:a. Attract customers

    b. Continually increase sales

    c. Expand its facilities

    d. Produce goods and services

    e. Make a profit

          

  2. The upward-flow/trickle-down theory of fashion adoption depends on which group of consumers to exert the strongest influence?a. Young members of the lower-income groups

    b. Media stars

    c. Political figures who are influential on the social scene

    d. The very wealthy who are relatively conservative

    e. College-educated children of lower-income groups

          

  3. Which theory of fashion adoption probably has the least acceptance today?a. Upward flow/trickle up

    b. Downward flow/trickle down

    c. Horizontal flow

    d. Trickle across

    e. Mass market

          

  4. There is a direct relationship between the growth and strength of the middle class and the growth and extent of fashion demand....

          

  5. The timing and rate of decline of the consumer-use cycle is usually just ahead of the consumer buying cycle.a. Copies of a Paris design being seen in a department
    store

    b. A top New York designer developing a collection for a major department store chain

    c. Several department stores advertising the same fashions at the same time

    d. Coveralls, the uniform of the laborer, becoming popular casual wear for teens in affluent neighborhoods

    e. a and b

          

  6. Fashions are independent of the environment in which they are worn.a. Is composed of growers and producers of the raw materials of fashion

    b. Is the ultimate distribution level

    c. Is the retailer

    d. Is composed of manufacturers and contractors of finished apparel

    e. Is the level that functions with all other levels simultaneously

          

  7. A brilliantly executed style by a top designer assures its immediate fashion acceptance....

          

  8. Know and understand how each principle and element functions by itself as well as its relation to other principles & elementsIntro: Fashion innovators purchase from the retailers who "lead" fashion

    Rise: Fashion leaders purchase from traditional retailers in their "better" departments

    Acceleration: Fashion followers purchase from traditional retailers in "moderate priced" Departments

    Mass Acceptance:
    Fashion followers purchase from the mass merchants

    Decline: Fashion followers may purchase a few items at greatly reduced priced from discounters

    Obsolescence:
    No one is buying

          

  9. Line-for-line copies would be located at the introduction stage of the fashion cycle.False

          

  10. By using the fashion cycle concept, a merchant is able to more accurately recognize the point at which markdowns should be taken....

          

  11. The first person to license his or her name to a product was:a. Pierre Cardin

    b. Christian Dior

    c. Michael Jordan

    d. Coco Chanel

    e. Oscar de la Renta

          

  12. A fashion fad is short lived....

          

  13. Physical mobility has contributed to changing fashion demand in all of the following ways except one. It is that:

    a. Distinctive regional patterns of dress are recognized and adhered to in the United States
    b. Customers seek out-of-season merchandise for their travels to areas with different climates
    c. Knock-offs of French couture designs can be found and purchased in local stores the season after they are shown in Paris
    d. A broader merchandise selection is needed to satisfy more sophisticated consumers who are exposed to many cultures
    e. Consumers who are transferred in their jobs from one part of the country to another bring their clothing preferences with them
    Answer is A!

    A) Distinctive regional patterns of dress are recognized and adhered to in the United States

          

  14. Studies that divide broad groups of consumers into smaller, more homogeneous target segments are called:a. Corporation

    b. Franchise

    c. Partnership

    d. Sole proprietorship

    e. Chain

          

  15. Know and understand how they relate to fashiona. Revert to styles previously fashionable

    b. Develop a need for fashions compatible with their altered environment and attitudes

    c. Adopt the styles of their national leaders

    d. Seek new and individually distinctive fashions

    e. Discard their wardrobes for others that are military-inspired

          

  16. A consumer is always a customer when he or she makes a purchase, but a customer making a purchase is not always a consumer.a. The increasing number of people over age 65

    b. The continuing inflationary spiral

    c. The rise in minimum wages

    d. Changes in birthrate

    e. The trend toward a more casual lifestyle

          

  17. Be able to discuss the principles of fashiona. Attract customers

    b. Continually increase sales

    c. Expand its facilities

    d. Produce goods and services

    e. Make a profit

          

  18. Individual demand for fashion goods is affected by:...

          

  19. A widespread recession generates increased fashion demand.a. Is composed of growers and producers of the raw materials of fashion

    b. Is the ultimate distribution level

    c. Is the retailer

    d. Is composed of manufacturers and contractors of finished apparel

    e. Is the level that functions with all other levels simultaneously

          

  20. Which of the following is not an acceptable definition of fashion?a. Fashion is change

    b. Fashion is the current interpretation of any style

    c. Fashion is what my customers are wearing

    d. Fashion is the prevailing design accepted and worn
    at a given time

    e. Fashion is a mysterious and unpredictable force that influences all of us

          

  21. Some fashions on the markdown racks of a successful department store would be located at the decline stage of the fashion cycle.a. Introduction stage

    b. Rise stage

    c. Culmination stage

    d. Decline stage

    e. Obsolescence stage

          

  22. Larger and more evenly distributed discretionary income enables more people to purchase new things for their fashion appeal rather than just for their utility....

          

  23. The advantages of this type of business include ownership of all profits, freedom and flexibility, and ease and low cost of organization and dissolution. It is a:a. Corporation

    b. Franchise

    c. Partnership

    d. Sole proprietorship

    e. Chain

          

  24. Fashions are created by designers, manufacturers, and sales promotional efforts.Intro: Fashion innovators purchase from the retailers who "lead" fashion

    Rise: Fashion leaders purchase from traditional retailers in their "better" departments

    Acceleration: Fashion followers purchase from traditional retailers in "moderate priced" Departments

    Mass Acceptance:
    Fashion followers purchase from the mass merchants

    Decline: Fashion followers may purchase a few items at greatly reduced priced from discounters

    Obsolescence:
    No one is buying

          

  25. Which of the following is not a principle of fashion according to the text? Choose one below.

    a. Fashion is unpredictable except for those persons who have fashion sense

    b. Advertising and promotion cannot change the direction of fashion unless the public is ready for change

    c. Fashions are created by consumers through acceptance or rejection of offered designs

    d. Fashion change is subtle and gradual and rarely shifts dramatically

    e. All fashions end in excess
    Answer is A

    A) "Fashion is unpredictable except for those persons who have fashion sense."

          

  26. The concept of "good taste" is based on sound principles of modesty, appropriateness, and beauty that do not change.a. Corporation

    b. Franchise

    c. Partnership

    d. Sole proprietorship

    e. Chain

          

  27. According to the dictionary's definition of fashion, "fashion" is basically limited to men's, women's, and children's clothing and accessories....

          

  28. Boredom does not have any influence in fashion demand.a. Revert to styles previously fashionable

    b. Develop a need for fashions compatible with their altered environment and attitudes

    c. Adopt the styles of their national leaders

    d. Seek new and individually distinctive fashions

    e. Discard their wardrobes for others that are military-inspired

          

  29. Reasons for following rather than leading in fashion include admiration for others, lack of interest, desire to be different, and feelings of inferiority....

          

  30. High-fashion merchandise is generally high-priced because:...

          

  31. Psychographic studies help merchants determine the income of potential customers.a. Invention of the sewing machine and man-made fibers

    b. Modern communications

    c. Live TV coverage of events around the world

    d. A larger, more affluent middle class with money to spend

    e. All of the above have influenced the rate of fashion change

          

  32. Which of the following is not a part of marketing?a. Straight or tubular

    b. Ruffled or pleated

    c. Bell-shaped or bouffant

    d. Bustle or back-fullness

    e. All of the above refer to silhouette of a garment

          

  33. The most common type of business in the United States is a:a. Corporation

    b. Franchise

    c. Partnership

    d. Sole proprietorship

    e. Chain

          

  34. The components of fashion that change most slowly in today's fashion cycles are:a. Silhouette, color, details, line

    b. Color, silhouette, details, texture

    c. Fiber, color, details, texture

    d. Texture, color, fiber, silhouette

    e. Details, fabric, color, texture

          

  35. Merchandising is the planning involved in getting the right merchandise, at the right price, in the right quantities, in the right location, with the right sales promotion, at the right time.a. Straight or tubular

    b. Ruffled or pleated

    c. Bell-shaped or bouffant

    d. Bustle or back-fullness

    e. All of the above refer to silhouette of a garment

          

  36. The culmination stage of a fashion may be extended:a. Attract customers

    b. Continually increase sales

    c. Expand its facilities

    d. Produce goods and services

    e. Make a profit

          

  37. In successful fashion merchandising, designs that have consumer acceptance appear in the greatest volume in retail stores when the design is on which point in the fashion cycle?

    a. Introductory

    b. Early rise

    c. Late rise

    d. Decline

    e. Culmination
    Answer is E!

    E) "Culmination"

          

  38. Wars and disasters tend to make people:a. Revert to styles previously fashionable

    b. Develop a need for fashions compatible with their altered environment and attitudes

    c. Adopt the styles of their national leaders

    d. Seek new and individually distinctive fashions

    e. Discard their wardrobes for others that are military-inspired

          

  39. Which of the following statements about fashion followers is not accurate?a. The mass fashion industry is profitable because there are many followers

    b. Within any group, the majority of individuals tend to be followers

    c. Observations of fashion influentials help industry planners predict the directions in which fashion followers will go

    d. Fashion followers purchase the same thing season after season

    e. Fashion followers exhibit mixed feelings about a new design; they both want and fear the selection of something unfamiliar

          

  40. Know the three major fashion adoption theories and their implications in the industry...

          

  41. Know and understand the fashion cycle, its stages, and the adoption groupsIntro: Fashion innovators purchase from the retailers who "lead" fashion

    Rise: Fashion leaders purchase from traditional retailers in their "better" departments

    Acceleration: Fashion followers purchase from traditional retailers in "moderate priced" Departments

    Mass Acceptance:
    Fashion followers purchase from the mass merchants

    Decline: Fashion followers may purchase a few items at greatly reduced priced from discounters

    Obsolescence:
    No one is buying

          

  42. A "line" is an assortment of new designs scheduled for delivery from the manufacturer to the retailer during the current season.a. If a fashion becomes a classic

    b. If changes in details are continually introduced

    c. If the fashion has been created by a leading designer

    d. If the item is heavily advertised

    e. a and b

          

  43. To be considered a fashion, an article of clothing must be accepted by the majority of a given group.a. Silhouette, color, details, line

    b. Color, silhouette, details, texture

    c. Fiber, color, details, texture

    d. Texture, color, fiber, silhouette

    e. Details, fabric, color, texture

          

  44. Being a public figure such as a political leader, entertainer, or sports star almost automatically results in a person's becoming a fashion influential....

          

  45. The components of fashion that are changed to create a new fashion are:a. Silhouette, color, details, line

    b. Color, silhouette, details, texture

    c. Fiber, color, details, texture

    d. Texture, color, fiber, silhouette

    e. Details, fabric, color, texture

          

  46. The primary objective of a business is to:a. Attract customers

    b. Continually increase sales

    c. Expand its facilities

    d. Produce goods and services

    e. Make a profit

          

  47. Know and understand the "what & why" of their physical and psychological effects...

          

  48. The individuals who have the most influence on the continued success of the fashion industry in this country are:...

          

  49. Which of the following originally outlawed monopolies?a. Clayton Act

    b. Federal Trade Commission Act

    c. Robinson-Patman Act

    d. Wheeler-Lee Act

    e. Sherman Antitrust Act

          

  50. Economically backward countries usually retain national customs in dress longer than do more advanced nations....

          

  51. Practical business considerations imposed on fashion designers include:a. Producing designs at a profit

    b. Producing designs within the firm's predetermined wholesale price range and fashion image

    c. Availability and cost of materials

    d. Available production techniques and labor costs

    e. All of the above

          

  52. The "budget market" turns out adaptations that have survived the introduction stage and are in the rise stage of the fashion cycle.True

          

  53. Classics move quickly, while fads move slowly through the fashion cycle....

          

  54. The designer who uses his or her talents to adapt or change the successful designs of others and works for a manufacturer is called a(n):a. Pierre Cardin

    b. Christian Dior

    c. Michael Jordan

    d. Coco Chanel

    e. Oscar de la Renta

          

  55. The term used to describe the sale of one company to another is called:a. Pierre Cardin

    b. Christian Dior

    c. Michael Jordan

    d. Coco Chanel

    e. Oscar de la Renta

          

  56. Blue jeans illustrate the concept of "classic" fashion for all of the following reasons except:Answer is A!

    A) Distinctive regional patterns of dress are recognized and adhered to in the United States

          

  57. This season's haute couture collection by a top Paris designer would be located at the rise stage of the fashion cycle.a. Introduction stage

    b. Rise stage

    c. Culmination stage

    d. Decline stage

    e. Obsolescence stage

          

  58. Money that an individual or family has left over after providing for food, basic clothing, shelter, taxes, and transportation is called:a. Personal income

    b. Disposable income

    c. Discretionary income

    d. Net income

    e. Gross income

          

  59. As consumers become more knowledgeable about their growing choices in their buying behavior, marketers are paying more attention to psychographic factors as they attempt to identify and meet the demands of their target customers....

          

  60. All of the following except one are economic factors currently being studied by fashion professionals to predict consumer demand. It is:a. Satisfaction with things as they are is a primary factor in accelerating fashion change

    b. Curiosity and the need to experiment keep fashion demand alive

    c. The majority of the population tends to adhere to convention in dress

    d. Often the need to overcome feelings of inferiority can be satisfied through apparel

    e. A person's selection of apparel can be a bid for companionship

          

  61. Extensive advertising efforts cannot reverse the trend of a fashion that is declining in popularity.a. Invention of the sewing machine and man-made fibers

    b. Modern communications

    c. Live TV coverage of events around the world

    d. A larger, more affluent middle class with money to spend

    e. All of the above have influenced the rate of fashion change

          

  62. Generally speaking, the more detailed a design, the more quickly it becomes obsolete or dated....

          

  63. "All fashions end in excess" is one of the:

    a. Principles of fashion
    b. Most quoted falsities
    c. Best campaign slogans for designers
    d. None of the above
    e. All of the above
    Answer is A: "Principles of fashion"

          

  64. Which of the following statements about psychological factors influencing fashion is not true?a. The increasing number of people over age 65

    b. The continuing inflationary spiral

    c. The rise in minimum wages

    d. Changes in birthrate

    e. The trend toward a more casual lifestyle

          

  65. Fashion interest and demand are far greater in some environments than in others.a. Cosmetics

    b. Couture

    c. Luxury non-apparel items

    d. Knock-offs

    e. Fashions worn only by A-list celebrities

          

  66. The only impact of the changed status of minority groups in the United States with regard to fashion is that members of these groups now have more money to buy more clothing and accessories.a. Corporation

    b. Franchise

    c. Partnership

    d. Sole proprietorship

    e. Chain

          

  67. A fashion cycle that is broken or abruptly interrupted by outside influences will generally resume once the influence is gone....

          

  68. The upward-flow theory is illustrated by:a. Copies of a Paris design being seen in a department
    store

    b. A top New York designer developing a collection for a major department store chain

    c. Several department stores advertising the same fashions at the same time

    d. Coveralls, the uniform of the laborer, becoming popular casual wear for teens in affluent neighborhoods

    e. a and b

          

  69. Know the all principles and elements of designa. Revert to styles previously fashionable

    b. Develop a need for fashions compatible with their altered environment and attitudes

    c. Adopt the styles of their national leaders

    d. Seek new and individually distinctive fashions

    e. Discard their wardrobes for others that are military-inspired

          

  70. Individuals who have the most influence on the continued success of the fashion industry in the United States are:...

          

  71. The horizontal-flow/trickle across theory of fashion adoption is dependent on:a. The fact that garments from couture designers can be copied line-for-line

    b. A youth-oriented culture that makes all age groups desire to dress alike

    c. The introduction of new styles to many social groups at approximately the same time

    d. Strong promotional efforts by manufacturers and retailers

    e. Unisex dressing, which allows men and women to wear the same kinds of garments

          

  72. Fashion influentials must have which one of the following traits?a. A great deal of time to devote to clothing selection

    b. Riches and fame

    c. Impeccably good taste

    d. A desire to flaunt tradition

    e. Popularity within their group so that others are prone to copy them

          

  73. The designer who creates designs for several manufacturers, either doing adaptations or original designs, is called a:a. High fashion or "name" designer

    b. Stylist-designer

    c. Freelance designer

    d. Artist-sketcher

    e. Couture designer

          

  74. A style is always a style, whether or not it is in fashion.a. Is composed of growers and producers of the raw materials of fashion

    b. Is the ultimate distribution level

    c. Is the retailer

    d. Is composed of manufacturers and contractors of finished apparel

    e. Is the level that functions with all other levels simultaneously

          

  75. Which of the following is not an advantage of a franchise?a. Fashion is change

    b. Fashion is the current interpretation of any style

    c. Fashion is what my customers are wearing

    d. Fashion is the prevailing design accepted and worn
    at a given time

    e. Fashion is a mysterious and unpredictable force that influences all of us

          

  76. Disposable personal income is roughly equivalent to "take-home pay."...

          

  77. Fashion moves quickly from one area of the body to another in an attempt to find a new source of interest.False

          

  78. Which of the following is not a cultural condition that favors stability in dress?a. Education

    b. Tradition

    c. Isolation

    d. Poverty

    e. Limited technology

          

  79. Which of the following statements about fads is accurate?

    a. Fads are initiated "on the street" and follow the downward theory of fashion dissemination

    b. Much of the faddish merchandise is aimed at the mature customer whose desire for change is more openly expressed

    c. Fads are more frequently evident in expensive accessories such as fine jewelry and leather goods from well-known producers

    d. A typical cycle for a fad is rapid rise, a brief culmination, and an even more rapid decline

    e. An item that has the characteristics of a fad will never have a culmination period
    Answer is D!

    D) "A typical cycle for a fad is rapid rise, a brief culmination, and an even more rapid decline."

          

  80. The term "style number" is used in the fashion industry to refer to the number assigned to each individual item purchased.True

          

  81. Be able to identify the four major levels in the fashion industry. Be able to describe their main purposes and how they interact....

          

  82. Where in the fashion cycle would fashion innovators most likely be located?a. Introduction stage

    b. Rise stage

    c. Culmination stage

    d. Decline stage

    e. Obsolescence stage

          

  83. Which of the following age groups of consumers is most responsive to fashion change?a. Invention of the sewing machine and man-made fibers

    b. Modern communications

    c. Live TV coverage of events around the world

    d. A larger, more affluent middle class with money to spend

    e. All of the above have influenced the rate of fashion change

          

  84. Approximately 90 percent of the new designs introduced each season by the fashion industry become fashions that are accepted by consumers....

          

  85. Inflation and recession have a direct affect on the inventory assortments and promotional activities of fashion merchants.a. Cosmetics

    b. Couture

    c. Luxury non-apparel items

    d. Knock-offs

    e. Fashions worn only by A-list celebrities

          

  86. Know and understand the fashion design process...

          

  87. Which of the following does not refer to silhouette?a. Straight or tubular

    b. Ruffled or pleated

    c. Bell-shaped or bouffant

    d. Bustle or back-fullness

    e. All of the above refer to silhouette of a garment

          

  88. Which of the following factors has influenced the rate of fashion change?a. Franchisee can get into business quickly

    b. Franchisee can use proven operating methods

    c. Franchisee benefits from training programs and mass purchasing offered by franchiser

    d. Franchisee has a great deal of individual control over the business

    e. Franchiser needs less capital for expansion

          

  89. Dior broke the rules of fashion by creating evolutionary designs that were immediately accepted by women after World War II....

          

  90. Sumptuary laws may be based on religious or moral principles.a. Revert to styles previously fashionable

    b. Develop a need for fashions compatible with their altered environment and attitudes

    c. Adopt the styles of their national leaders

    d. Seek new and individually distinctive fashions

    e. Discard their wardrobes for others that are military-inspired

          

  91. When fashion apparel is in a cycle break, consumer interest often turns to:a. Cosmetics

    b. Couture

    c. Luxury non-apparel items

    d. Knock-offs

    e. Fashions worn only by A-list celebrities

          

  92. Be able to identify emotional, social, political, and/or economic motives consumers have for accelerating, delaying, and following fashion.a. Clayton Act

    b. Federal Trade Commission Act

    c. Robinson-Patman Act

    d. Wheeler-Lee Act

    e. Sherman Antitrust Act

          

  93. True or False Questions:a. Revert to styles previously fashionable

    b. Develop a need for fashions compatible with their altered environment and attitudes

    c. Adopt the styles of their national leaders

    d. Seek new and individually distinctive fashions

    e. Discard their wardrobes for others that are military-inspired

          

  94. Designers are generally limited to historic fashions as a source of inspiration for new styles.a. Is composed of growers and producers of the raw materials of fashion

    b. Is the ultimate distribution level

    c. Is the retailer

    d. Is composed of manufacturers and contractors of finished apparel

    e. Is the level that functions with all other levels simultaneously

          

  95. Designers should create new designs as soon as customers stop wearing the old ones....

          

  96. In their own way, styles recur in fashion acceptance, although never exactly as they were in the past because of differing environmental conditions.Answer is A

    A) "Fashion is unpredictable except for those persons who have fashion sense."

          

  97. The difference between a fashion innovator and a fashion influential is:a. Is composed of growers and producers of the raw materials of fashion

    b. Is the ultimate distribution level

    c. Is the retailer

    d. Is composed of manufacturers and contractors of finished apparel

    e. Is the level that functions with all other levels simultaneously

          

  98. Which of the following is the more significant figure to fashion producers and marketers?a. Franchisee can get into business quickly

    b. Franchisee can use proven operating methods

    c. Franchisee benefits from training programs and mass purchasing offered by franchiser

    d. Franchisee has a great deal of individual control over the business

    e. Franchiser needs less capital for expansion

          

  99. New designs that are still in the introductory stage of the fashion cycle are generally:a. Introduced as higher-priced merchandise

    b. Worn by large numbers of young people

    c. Unrelated to the previous season's fashions

    d. Produced in large quantities

    e. From Paris

          

  100. The secondary level of the fashion industry:a. Is composed of growers and producers of the raw materials of fashion

    b. Is the ultimate distribution level

    c. Is the retailer

    d. Is composed of manufacturers and contractors of finished apparel

    e. Is the level that functions with all other levels simultaneously

          

  101. Specialty stores generally mark down merchandise right before it reaches the obsolescence stage of the fashion cycle.a. Straight or tubular

    b. Ruffled or pleated

    c. Bell-shaped or bouffant

    d. Bustle or back-fullness

    e. All of the above refer to silhouette of a garment

          

  102. Sales promotion can have an accelerating effect on fashion cycles.False

          

  103. Good, solid facts about target customers are behind most successful merchandising decisions....

          

  104. Which of the following is worn by most of the American public?a. Prophetic fashions

    b. Innovative fashions

    c. High fashion

    d. Mass or volume fashion

    e. Non-fashions

          

  105. A franchise may operate as a sole proprietorship, a partnership, or a corporation.a. Buying

    b. Selling

    c. Sales promotion

    d. Production

    e. Research

          

  106. Mergers or acquisitions between companies in unrelated industries are called:a. Vertical mergers

    b. Horizontal mergers

    c. Amalgamated mergers

    d. Conglomerate mergers

    e. Laissez-faire

          

  107. Which of the following is not a measure of demographics?

    a. Marital status
    b. Income
    c. Age
    d. Gender
    e. What type of car a person owns
    a. Buying

    b. Selling

    c. Sales promotion

    d. Production

    e. Research

          

  108. "Fashion is evolutionary, not revolutionary" is best explained by which of the following statements?

    a. Fashion is influenced by political events
    b. Fashion tends to repeat in cycles
    c. Fashions tend to change gradually
    d. Fashions can "trickle-up" from the streets
    e. Fashions are influenced by famous people
    Answer is C!

    C) "Fashions tend to change gradually"

          

  109. One of the major disadvantages of the corporation is the unlimited liability of its owners.a. Copies of a Paris design being seen in a department
    store

    b. A top New York designer developing a collection for a major department store chain

    c. Several department stores advertising the same fashions at the same time

    d. Coveralls, the uniform of the laborer, becoming popular casual wear for teens in affluent neighborhoods

    e. a and b

          

  110. A vertical flow of fashion adoption definitely operates within the fashion industry: famous designers and major manufacturers are studied and copied by lesser-known designers and smaller manufacturers.a. Upward flow/trickle up

    b. Downward flow/trickle down

    c. Horizontal flow

    d. Trickle across

    e. Mass market

          

  111. Market segmentation is the coordination of consumers into smaller groups....