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56 Matching questions

  1. Which of the following is worn by most of the American public?
  2. Which of the following is not a measure of demographics?

    a. Marital status
    b. Income
    c. Age
    d. Gender
    e. What type of car a person owns
  3. Individuals who have the most influence on the continued success of the fashion industry in the United States are:
  4. Practical business considerations imposed on fashion designers include:
  5. Which of the following statements about psychological factors influencing fashion is not true?
  6. Blue jeans illustrate the concept of "classic" fashion for all of the following reasons except:
  7. Classics move quickly, while fads move slowly through the fashion cycle.
  8. The upward-flow/trickle-down theory of fashion adoption depends on which group of consumers to exert the strongest influence?
  9. Which of the following is the more significant figure to fashion producers and marketers?
  10. The designer who creates designs for several manufacturers, either doing adaptations or original designs, is called a:
  11. Which of the following is not a part of marketing?
  12. Which of the following statements about fads is accurate?

    a. Fads are initiated "on the street" and follow the downward theory of fashion dissemination

    b. Much of the faddish merchandise is aimed at the mature customer whose desire for change is more openly expressed

    c. Fads are more frequently evident in expensive accessories such as fine jewelry and leather goods from well-known producers

    d. A typical cycle for a fad is rapid rise, a brief culmination, and an even more rapid decline

    e. An item that has the characteristics of a fad will never have a culmination period
  13. Mergers or acquisitions between companies in unrelated industries are called:
  14. The first person to license his or her name to a product was:
  15. The designer who uses his or her talents to adapt or change the successful designs of others and works for a manufacturer is called a(n):
  16. Unlimited liability means that all debts attributable to a business can be the responsibility of:
  17. Studies that divide broad groups of consumers into smaller, more homogeneous target segments are called:
  18. Physical mobility has contributed to changing fashion demand in all of the following ways except one. It is that:

    a. Distinctive regional patterns of dress are recognized and adhered to in the United States
    b. Customers seek out-of-season merchandise for their travels to areas with different climates
    c. Knock-offs of French couture designs can be found and purchased in local stores the season after they are shown in Paris
    d. A broader merchandise selection is needed to satisfy more sophisticated consumers who are exposed to many cultures
    e. Consumers who are transferred in their jobs from one part of the country to another bring their clothing preferences with them
  19. Which of the following does not refer to silhouette?
  20. In successful fashion merchandising, designs that have consumer acceptance appear in the greatest volume in retail stores when the design is on which point in the fashion cycle?

    a. Introductory

    b. Early rise

    c. Late rise

    d. Decline

    e. Culmination
  21. The term used to describe the sale of one company to another is called:
  22. Individual demand for fashion goods is affected by:
  23. Which of the following statements about fashion followers is not accurate?
  24. When fashion apparel is in a cycle break, consumer interest often turns to:
  25. "Fashion is evolutionary, not revolutionary" is best explained by which of the following statements?

    a. Fashion is influenced by political events
    b. Fashion tends to repeat in cycles
    c. Fashions tend to change gradually
    d. Fashions can "trickle-up" from the streets
    e. Fashions are influenced by famous people
  26. Which of the following age groups of consumers is most responsive to fashion change?
  27. Which of the following originally outlawed monopolies?
  28. The culmination stage of a fashion may be extended:
  29. The horizontal-flow/trickle across theory of fashion adoption is dependent on:
  30. Dior broke the rules of fashion by creating evolutionary designs that were immediately accepted by women after World War II.
  31. Which theory of fashion adoption probably has the least acceptance today?
  32. The components of fashion that are changed to create a new fashion are:
  33. Fashion influentials must have which one of the following traits?
  34. Which of the following is not an advantage of a franchise?
  35. The individuals who have the most influence on the continued success of the fashion industry in this country are:
  36. The secondary level of the fashion industry:
  37. The upward-flow theory is illustrated by:
  38. The advantages of this type of business include ownership of all profits, freedom and flexibility, and ease and low cost of organization and dissolution. It is a:
  39. Which of the following is not a cultural condition that favors stability in dress?
  40. High-fashion merchandise is generally high-priced because:
  41. Which of the following is not an acceptable definition of fashion?
  42. Know and understand the fashion cycle, its stages, and the adoption groups
  43. The components of fashion that change most slowly in today's fashion cycles are:
  44. New designs that are still in the introductory stage of the fashion cycle are generally:
  45. Where in the fashion cycle would fashion innovators most likely be located?
  46. Which of the following factors has influenced the rate of fashion change?
  47. The term "style number" is used in the fashion industry to refer to the number assigned to each individual item purchased.
  48. Which of the following is not a principle of fashion according to the text? Choose one below.

    a. Fashion is unpredictable except for those persons who have fashion sense

    b. Advertising and promotion cannot change the direction of fashion unless the public is ready for change

    c. Fashions are created by consumers through acceptance or rejection of offered designs

    d. Fashion change is subtle and gradual and rarely shifts dramatically

    e. All fashions end in excess
  49. Money that an individual or family has left over after providing for food, basic clothing, shelter, taxes, and transportation is called:
  50. The primary objective of a business is to:
  51. The most common type of business in the United States is a:
  52. "All fashions end in excess" is one of the:

    a. Principles of fashion
    b. Most quoted falsities
    c. Best campaign slogans for designers
    d. None of the above
    e. All of the above
  53. All of the following except one are economic factors currently being studied by fashion professionals to predict consumer demand. It is:
  54. Extensive advertising efforts cannot reverse the trend of a fashion that is declining in popularity.
  55. The difference between a fashion innovator and a fashion influential is:
  56. Wars and disasters tend to make people:
  1. a ...
  2. b a. Vertical acquisition

    b. A takeover

    c. A merger

    d. Diversification

    e. Internal growth
  3. c a. High fashion or name designer

    b. Stylist-designer

    c. Freelance designer

    d. Artist-sketcher

    e. Couture designer
  4. d a. Psychographics

    b. Economics

    c. Demographics

    d. Sociology

    e. Census
  5. e a. A great deal of time to devote to clothing selection

    b. Riches and fame

    c. Impeccably good taste

    d. A desire to flaunt tradition

    e. Popularity within their group so that others are prone to copy them
  6. f Answer is E!

    E) "Culmination"
  7. g a. Fashion is change

    b. Fashion is the current interpretation of any style

    c. Fashion is what my customers are wearing

    d. Fashion is the prevailing design accepted and worn
    at a given time

    e. Fashion is a mysterious and unpredictable force that influences all of us
  8. h a. Introduction stage

    b. Rise stage

    c. Culmination stage

    d. Decline stage

    e. Obsolescence stage
  9. i a. The innovator wears extreme high-fashion styles while the influential wears classic styles

    b. The innovator is first to try new styles; the influential is the person whose adoption of a new style gives it prestige among a group

    c. The term "fashion innovator" refers to fashion directors in major specialty stores; "fashion influential" refers to consumers who are fashion leaders in their community

    d. Fashion innovators affect only a small segment of the population, while the fashion influentials have a nationwide effect on fashion

    e. There is basically no difference between the two
  10. j False
  11. k a. High fashion or "name" designer

    b. Stylist-designer

    c. Freelance designer

    d. Artist-sketcher

    e. Couture designer
  12. l a. Magazine editors

    b. Fashion followers

    c. Retail buyers

    d. Fashion innovators

    e. Leading Paris designers
  13. m The answer is E - "What type of car a person owns" is NOT a measure of demographic
  14. n a. Fashion influentials

    b. Fashion followers

    c. Retail fashion buyers for major department stores

    d. Fashion innovators

    e. Leading Paris designers
  15. o Answer is D!

    D) "A typical cycle for a fad is rapid rise, a brief culmination, and an even more rapid decline."
  16. p a. The mass fashion industry is profitable because there are many followers

    b. Within any group, the majority of individuals tend to be followers

    c. Observations of fashion influentials help industry planners predict the directions in which fashion followers will go

    d. Fashion followers purchase the same thing season after season

    e. Fashion followers exhibit mixed feelings about a new design; they both want and fear the selection of something unfamiliar
  17. q Answer is A: "Principles of fashion"
  18. r a. 15-24

    b. 25-34

    c. 35-44

    d. 45-54

    e. 55-65
  19. s a. Cosmetics

    b. Couture

    c. Luxury non-apparel items

    d. Knock-offs

    e. Fashions worn only by A-list celebrities
  20. t a. Satisfaction with things as they are is a primary factor in accelerating fashion change

    b. Curiosity and the need to experiment keep fashion demand alive

    c. The majority of the population tends to adhere to convention in dress

    d. Often the need to overcome feelings of inferiority can be satisfied through apparel

    e. A person's selection of apparel can be a bid for companionship
  21. u True? Double check
  22. v a. Blue jeans are a simple design

    b. They have had acceptance by many people and by many socio-cultural groups in contemporary society for a long time

    c. It has been possible to continually update the basic styling of jeans

    d. Blue jeans can be found in all price lines

    e. Usually the fashion cycle of blue jeans shows a rapid rise and rapid decline
  23. w a. Pierre Cardin

    b. Christian Dior

    c. Michael Jordan

    d. Coco Chanel

    e. Oscar de la Renta
  24. x a. Short-term economic trends

    b. Long-term economic trends

    c. The amount of disposable income the individual has on hand at a given time

    d. Consumer expectations about future economic affluence

    e. All of the above
  25. y a. The cost of design experimentation and development must be covered in the price of the high- fashion garment

    b. Retailers feel that they can get extra profits from high-fashion merchandise

    c. Affluent customers tend to discard clothes after a few wearings

    d. Designers and manufacturers of high-fashion goods receive very high salaries

    e. Stores must often take large markdowns on high-fashion merchandise selected to give the store a fashion image
  26. z a. Producing designs at a profit

    b. Producing designs within the firm's predetermined wholesale price range and fashion image

    c. Availability and cost of materials

    d. Available production techniques and labor costs

    e. All of the above
  27. aa Answer is A!

    A) Distinctive regional patterns of dress are recognized and adhered to in the United States
  28. ab a. Silhouette, color, details, line

    b. Color, silhouette, details, texture

    c. Fiber, color, details, texture

    d. Texture, color, fiber, silhouette

    e. Details, fabric, color, texture
  29. ac Answer is C!

    C) "Fashions tend to change gradually"
  30. ad a. Prophetic fashions

    b. Innovative fashions

    c. High fashion

    d. Mass or volume fashion

    e. Non-fashions
  31. ae a. Corporation

    b. Franchise

    c. Partnership

    d. Sole proprietorship

    e. Chain
  32. af a. Young members of the lower-income groups

    b. Media stars

    c. Political figures who are influential on the social scene

    d. The very wealthy who are relatively conservative

    e. College-educated children of lower-income groups
  33. ag a. The increasing number of people over age 65

    b. The continuing inflationary spiral

    c. The rise in minimum wages

    d. Changes in birthrate

    e. The trend toward a more casual lifestyle
  34. ah a. Vertical mergers

    b. Horizontal mergers

    c. Amalgamated mergers

    d. Conglomerate mergers

    e. Laissez-faire
  35. ai a. Introduced as higher-priced merchandise

    b. Worn by large numbers of young people

    c. Unrelated to the previous season's fashions

    d. Produced in large quantities

    e. From Paris
  36. aj a. Invention of the sewing machine and man-made fibers

    b. Modern communications

    c. Live TV coverage of events around the world

    d. A larger, more affluent middle class with money to spend

    e. All of the above have influenced the rate of fashion change
  37. ak a. If a fashion becomes a classic

    b. If changes in details are continually introduced

    c. If the fashion has been created by a leading designer

    d. If the item is heavily advertised

    e. a and b
  38. al a. The fact that garments from couture designers can be copied line-for-line

    b. A youth-oriented culture that makes all age groups desire to dress alike

    c. The introduction of new styles to many social groups at approximately the same time

    d. Strong promotional efforts by manufacturers and retailers

    e. Unisex dressing, which allows men and women to wear the same kinds of garments
  39. am True
  40. an a. Buying

    b. Selling

    c. Sales promotion

    d. Production

    e. Research
  41. ao a. Personal income

    b. Disposable income

    c. Discretionary income

    d. Net income

    e. Gross income
  42. ap a. Straight or tubular

    b. Ruffled or pleated

    c. Bell-shaped or bouffant

    d. Bustle or back-fullness

    e. All of the above refer to silhouette of a garment
  43. aq a. Copies of a Paris design being seen in a department
    store

    b. A top New York designer developing a collection for a major department store chain

    c. Several department stores advertising the same fashions at the same time

    d. Coveralls, the uniform of the laborer, becoming popular casual wear for teens in affluent neighborhoods

    e. a and b
  44. ar Answer is A

    A) "Fashion is unpredictable except for those persons who have fashion sense."
  45. as a. Color, texture

    b. Silhouette, line

    c. Details, fiber

    d. Fabric, values

    e. Color, silhouette
  46. at a. Per capita personal income

    b. Disposable personal income

    c. Discretionary income

    d. Personal income

    e. Take-home pay
  47. au a. Upward flow/trickle up

    b. Downward flow/trickle down

    c. Horizontal flow

    d. Trickle across

    e. Mass market
  48. av a. Is composed of growers and producers of the raw materials of fashion

    b. Is the ultimate distribution level

    c. Is the retailer

    d. Is composed of manufacturers and contractors of finished apparel

    e. Is the level that functions with all other levels simultaneously
  49. aw a. Sole proprietorship

    b. Franchise

    c. Partnership

    d. Corporation

    e. Conglomerate
  50. ax a. Clayton Act

    b. Federal Trade Commission Act

    c. Robinson-Patman Act

    d. Wheeler-Lee Act

    e. Sherman Antitrust Act
  51. ay a. Attract customers

    b. Continually increase sales

    c. Expand its facilities

    d. Produce goods and services

    e. Make a profit
  52. az a. Education

    b. Tradition

    c. Isolation

    d. Poverty

    e. Limited technology
  53. ba a. Stockholders

    b. Owners

    c. Creditors

    d. Board of directors

    e. Employers
  54. bb a. Franchisee can get into business quickly

    b. Franchisee can use proven operating methods

    c. Franchisee benefits from training programs and mass purchasing offered by franchiser

    d. Franchisee has a great deal of individual control over the business

    e. Franchiser needs less capital for expansion
  55. bc Intro: Fashion innovators purchase from the retailers who "lead" fashion

    Rise: Fashion leaders purchase from traditional retailers in their "better" departments

    Acceleration: Fashion followers purchase from traditional retailers in "moderate priced" Departments

    Mass Acceptance:
    Fashion followers purchase from the mass merchants

    Decline: Fashion followers may purchase a few items at greatly reduced priced from discounters

    Obsolescence:
    No one is buying
  56. bd a. Revert to styles previously fashionable

    b. Develop a need for fashions compatible with their altered environment and attitudes

    c. Adopt the styles of their national leaders

    d. Seek new and individually distinctive fashions

    e. Discard their wardrobes for others that are military-inspired