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  • Fashion occurs in almost every aspect of life


    Fashion usually emerges first in

    Apparel and Accessories

    For the best career preparations, college students are encouraged to:

    Gain part time employment
    Have a strong work ethic
    Understand that change will be a constant in their careers

    Why is fashion unique?

    Fashion products appeal to consumer emotions
    Fashion is perishable
    Fashions are available to most income levels of consumers
    Fashion requires group acceptance

    Personal qualities desired in those who pursue fashion careers include:

    Thinking critically, creativity, charisma and a calculating mind

    Merchandising is providing the:

    Right product at the right time, in the right quantity, at the right price

    Marketers of fashion often use fashion promotions with ______ to sell more fashion


    The key to the successful marketing of fashions that are popular at the moment is called

    Speed to market

    Businesses existing at the beginning of the apparel supply chain are:

    Fiber and yarn production

    Forecasting services and consulting service in the supply chain are known as:

    Auxiliary services

    Apparel and accessory items become fashions once a designer introduces the style


    The supply chain levels (in order) are:

    Producer to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to ultimate consumer

    The supply chain consists of producer manufacturer, wholesaler, retailer, and ultimate consumers


    The sourcing of textiles ad apparel comes from American suppliers because American suppliers offer the lowest costs due to product efficiencies


    Planned obsolescence is the continual introduction of new and different styles, prints, colors, and fabrics


    The A line shift, above the knee hemlines, and white go go boots of the 1960s were introduced by Andres Courreges


    Slinky, form fitting bias cut dresses were popular during the


    Many people of the 1970s were dressed in the recommended career ensemble of John T Malloy


    Fashion is a reflection of the way of life at a given time


    In general, fashions evolve from recent previous styles that have changed only slightly


    The popularity of wearing obvious status symbols waned in the 1990s


    Women were introduced to pantyhose during the:


    Fashion at any time reflects social, political, and economic happenings. A word used to describe this is:


    The women who publicly rejected the wearing of corsets and adopted Turkish trousers under shorter skirts are known as:


    Which designer is credited with introducing the New Look to post World II America?

    Christian Dior

    The counterculture group that wore black and had a strong influence on hippies was the:


    The dress popular when miniskirts were popular was the:

    Maxi dress

    The time during the 1970s when men wore colorful, effeminate clothing was known as the:

    Peacock revolution

    One of the effects of World War II on the American fashion industry was the:

    Limited contact with French couture houses

    The introduction of nylon by the DuPont Chemical Company occurred in:


    Because of the vast diversity within the fashion industry, students do not need to know and understand the fundamentals of the industry as well as basic fashion terminology


    Fashion knockoffs of higher priced items that are quickly copied, produced, delivered, and sold at low prices are:

    Fast Fashion

    The broad term for the general direction in which fashion is moving is


    The combined size of the men's and boy's apparel and accessories industries is twice as large as that of the women's apparel and accessories industries


    Vanity sizing is common at the lower end of the wholesale price zones due to the need to make customers feel good about purchasing inexpensive fashion


    The major categories of children's apparel and accessories are preemies, newborns, infants, toddlers, children and preteens


    The recent recessions have caused a decline in business for the children's wear industry


    The Women's wear industry wholesale categories include casual sportswear, tailored clothing and:

    The list is not a reflection of the women's wear wholesale categories

    Wholesale price zones are designated based on

    Cost and Quality

    The wholesale zones typical of a department store's main level merchandise are:

    Lower Better/Better

    When designers opt to reinterpret select pieces from their signature lines while maintaining the style of the signature collection, the pieces are part of the ____ line


    Which of the following is not a distinguishing factor of the men's wear industry

    All of the above are correct

    The process of custom tailoring a man's clothes to his specific measurements is:

    Bespoke tailoring

    A current trend in the children's wear industry is:

    An increase in the # of licensed products
    An increase in the influence of children on purchase decisions

    The marketing term for the consumer group between the ages 8-12 is:


    Thorstein Veblen proposed that a style requires group acceptance before it can become a fashion


    Fashion innovators start fashions, while fashion followers follow fashions


    The phrase ____ describes the situation in which the lower classes chase (imitate) fashions of the upper class, who then fly to a newer fashion

    Chase and flight

    The high-low trend in dressing means that people wear more expensive branded pieces with trend right items at fast fashion


    The notion that new fashions evolve from the most recent fashions is referred to as historical continuity


    A purpose of fashion is to enhance youthfulness


    Which of the following is not a fashion principle?

    Fashion is a price

    The fashion adoption theory that states that fashions are introduced by the wealthy and elite members of society, and then are adopted by the masses is the ____ theory.

    Trickle down

    The theory of fashion adoption that states that fashions are first introduced by the lower social classes, youth, minorities, or working class, and then gain popularity with the more affluent consumers is the ____ theory

    Trickle up

    The fashion theory that states that fashions are first adopted near large metropolitan cities before moving inward toward the central US is the _____ theory


    The ____ theory describes a single fashion using different adjectives, depending on how far removed the style is from its fashionable days


    The theory of the shifting erogenous zones suggests:

    The female body is divided into a series of sterilized zones that are singularly uncovered to create fashion interest

    The purpose of fashion is to:

    Create a sense of identity
    Demonstrate superiority
    Relieve boredom

    Styletribes refers to:

    Unique cultural segments

    The demise of serviceable fashions that are then replaced by newer, seemingly more attractive fashions is:

    Artificial obsolescence

    Businesses can segment a target market using demographics, psychographics, behavioral characteristics, or geographics


    Which is not an example of push marketing?

    All of the above are examples of push marketing

    The strategy for the coordination of all marketing tools to ensure a united front and maximization of communication impact is

    Integrated marketing strategy

    A narrowly defined market segment, but not necessarily a small segment, is a

    Niche market

    The four Ps of marketing are product, place, price and promotion


    The target customer is the chosen market segment, and the target market is the businesses or individuals within the group


    Demographics include usage or consumption rates and benefits sought


    With relationship marketing, marketers attempt to create strong relationships with the best customers by offering valued product and service packages


    _____ variables include values, attitudes, beliefs, opinions, interests, and lifestyles


    The term "geographic segmentation" refers to the process of dividing the marketing into groups that may be:

    All of the above are correct

    The mutually satisfying exchange between a buyer and a seller is termed ______

    Relationship marketing

    The image associated with a company or brand in the customer's mind in relation to the four P's of marketing is known as _____


    The deliberate and strategic change in the four P's of marketing to create a different image in the customer's minds is


    The retail price is the amount

    The retailer pays for the item

    The point of distinction or special capabilities of a retailer are known as:

    All of the terms are correct

    A fashion product life cycle has four stages; rise, growth, culmination, decline, and obsolescence


    The prediction of trends in colors, prints, styles, and fabrics for apparel and accessories is

    Fashion forecasting

    The gathering of quantitative research data relies on sufficient amounts of data, so results reflect the target population


    Database marketing involves analyzing existing sales or customer data for trends or problems


    The fashion product life cycle curve for a fashion product resembles a bell shaped curve


    Observation methods of research include style testing and market testing


    Which of the following is not an adopter group corresponding to the fashion product life cycle?

    Early minority

    The type of data in which facts are gathered specifically to answer a research problem is called

    Primary data

    Which of the following is not one of the seven steps of fashion research?

    All of the above are steps in the research process

    The fashion product life cycle curve that depicts a quick rise in popularity and a quicker decline in popularity is the:


    The fashion product life cycle that depicts a product popular over a relatively long period of time is a


    When a large percentage of the population has adopted a fashion, and everyone who wants the fashion wears it, the fashion is in the _____ stage of the life cycle


    In general, the price of a fashion is usually higher in the _____ stage of the life cycle


    When the retailer and the manufacturer share the cost of a product advertisement, the term used is

    Cooperative advertising

    Trendy, inexpensive apparel items with an intended single season use are called

    Fast Fashion

    The benefits of private label brands include increased store loyalty


    Consumers have a distinct image of a brand when branding is successfully accomplished


    The illegal practice of manufacturing replicas and fake merchandise disguised as authentic originals creates ____ products


    Positioning is placing the brand in the consumers' minds so that consumers perceive it in a particular way


    When marketers attempt to position a product, they attempt to change customer perception from a firmly held belief to a different view


    Designer brands bear the name of the designer


    Which marketer uses branding to demonstrate superior attributes to target customers?


    Which term is used to refer to the positive feelings and added value that consumers associate with a brand?

    None of the above is correct

    Private labels are owned by


    Brands with national distribution that are available nationwide in competing stores are

    None of the above is correct

    Brands that are retailed and recognized in countries around the globe are

    Multinational brands

    The contractual agreement between a licensor and a licensee whereby the licensor sells the rights to use its name on merchandise produced by the licensor is termed:


    Original, creative ideas are protected by:

    Intellectual property rights

    _____ products are considered a legal, normal, and acceptable means of doing business


    Copyrights and registered trademarks protect:

    Symbols, logos and brand names

    A textile is created from fibers that are processed and spun together into yarns


    Fabrics created by interlocking loops of yarn are ____ fabrics


    Events that provide opportunities for trade members to make industry contacts, networks, create awareness, view trends, and show innovative products are termed:

    Trade shows

    Fiber producers, yarn manufacturers, fabric mills, and apparel manufacturers comprise the trade levels in the textile industry


    Recent increases in the cost of oil have resulted in the increased production cost of oil-based synthetics and increased transportation costs


    Protein fibers are grown from a plant source


    Natural fibers are preferred by most top fashion designers because of their beauty, drape and elegance


    Unfinished natural or manmade products consumed by a manufacturer and used in the manufacture of finished goods are:

    Raw materials

    Apparel or home fashion items that are made of textiles and are nondurable are:

    Soft goods

    Which is not a natural cellulosic fiber?


    A characteristic of natural protein fibers include all but:

    All of the above are characteristics

    The first artificial fiber was:


    Synthetic fiber properties include:

    All of the above are correct

    Very fine, manmade filament fibers are known as:


    The US produces some of the ____ quality cattle leather and consumes _____ leather and fur than it produces


    The 4P's


    T or F: When manufacturers decide the total cost of producing a garment, the process is known as costing out a garment.


    T or F: A rough draft, or prototype garment, in a common size is referred to as a first sample by manufacturers.


    T or F: When a product undergoes significant change, it is termed substantial transformation


    T or F: When customers have input into the production of a mass-produced item, marketers refer to it as niche marketing.


    T or F: The decision to purchase component parts and materials from vendors in other parts of the world is called assembling.


    Creative individuals who develop new ideas and gain inspiration from things around them are:


    Individuals who take popular styles and create knockoffs or adaptations that have marketability are:

    style pirates

    Design inspiration for designers originates from ideas around them, such as:

    art culture, hollywood, streetwear

    The stages of fashion reproduction and production include all but:


    The process of determining the most efficient placement of the pattern pieces for a cutting guide is:


    Reducing the time required to design, produce, and deliver goods refers to:

    speed to market

    The advantages of domestic production include:

    lower shipping costs, higher quality, greater quality control, relationship marketing

    Contracting with another business to provide products or services used in production is called:


    Apparel manufacturing may:

    be outsourced to other countries where labor costs are lower and occur near retail outlets

    Domestic apparel manufacturing is most commonly used for fashions that sell at:

    higher retail prices where increased costs can be more easily absorbed in retail price

    T or F: Fashion market centers are geographic regions with a high concentration of fashion trade businesses.


    T or F: Quotas are prohibitions on products into a country


    T or F: Off-price merchandise is typically sold at a discount of 20% below retail price.


    T or F: The semiannual fashion show held in New York City is named Seventh on Sixth.


    T or F: A limitation in the quantity of imports to protect a domestic industry is a safeguard quota


    The most important American fashion centers include all but:

    St. Louis

    Important European fashion market centers include:

    Milan and Paris

    The United States imports 96% of all apparel that it consumes, especially from:

    asian countries

    The top five textile and apparel trading partners with the United States include all of the following except:

    china, mexico, india, and indonesia

    Goods brought into a receiving country are ______ while goods shipped out of a producing country are ______.

    imports; exports

    The illegal activity in which quota-restricted goods are shipped to a nearby country prior to being shipped to the receiving country is:


    Wholesalers, buying offices, intermediaries, imports, jobbers, and brokers exist at which level of the supply chain?


    The wholesale showroom that sells only one brand of goods because it is owned by the branding company is the:

    manufacturer owned showroom

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