For the best career preparations, college students are encouraged to:
Gain part time employment
Have a strong work ethic
Understand that change will be a constant in their careers
Why is fashion unique?
Fashion products appeal to consumer emotions
Fashion is perishable
Fashions are available to most income levels of consumers
Fashion requires group acceptance
Personal qualities desired in those who pursue fashion careers include:
Thinking critically, creativity, charisma and a calculating mind
Merchandising is providing the:
Right product at the right time, in the right quantity, at the right price
The key to the successful marketing of fashions that are popular at the moment is called
Speed to market
The supply chain levels (in order) are:
Producer to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to ultimate consumer
The supply chain consists of producer manufacturer, wholesaler, retailer, and ultimate consumers
The sourcing of textiles ad apparel comes from American suppliers because American suppliers offer the lowest costs due to product efficiencies
Planned obsolescence is the continual introduction of new and different styles, prints, colors, and fabrics
The A line shift, above the knee hemlines, and white go go boots of the 1960s were introduced by Andres Courreges
Fashion at any time reflects social, political, and economic happenings. A word used to describe this is:
The women who publicly rejected the wearing of corsets and adopted Turkish trousers under shorter skirts are known as:
The time during the 1970s when men wore colorful, effeminate clothing was known as the:
One of the effects of World War II on the American fashion industry was the:
Limited contact with French couture houses
Because of the vast diversity within the fashion industry, students do not need to know and understand the fundamentals of the industry as well as basic fashion terminology
Fashion knockoffs of higher priced items that are quickly copied, produced, delivered, and sold at low prices are:
The combined size of the men's and boy's apparel and accessories industries is twice as large as that of the women's apparel and accessories industries
Vanity sizing is common at the lower end of the wholesale price zones due to the need to make customers feel good about purchasing inexpensive fashion
The major categories of children's apparel and accessories are preemies, newborns, infants, toddlers, children and preteens
The Women's wear industry wholesale categories include casual sportswear, tailored clothing and:
The list is not a reflection of the women's wear wholesale categories
When designers opt to reinterpret select pieces from their signature lines while maintaining the style of the signature collection, the pieces are part of the ____ line
Which of the following is not a distinguishing factor of the men's wear industry
All of the above are correct
A current trend in the children's wear industry is:
An increase in the # of licensed products
An increase in the influence of children on purchase decisions
Thorstein Veblen proposed that a style requires group acceptance before it can become a fashion
The phrase ____ describes the situation in which the lower classes chase (imitate) fashions of the upper class, who then fly to a newer fashion
Chase and flight
The high-low trend in dressing means that people wear more expensive branded pieces with trend right items at fast fashion
The notion that new fashions evolve from the most recent fashions is referred to as historical continuity
The fashion adoption theory that states that fashions are introduced by the wealthy and elite members of society, and then are adopted by the masses is the ____ theory.
The theory of fashion adoption that states that fashions are first introduced by the lower social classes, youth, minorities, or working class, and then gain popularity with the more affluent consumers is the ____ theory
The fashion theory that states that fashions are first adopted near large metropolitan cities before moving inward toward the central US is the _____ theory
The ____ theory describes a single fashion using different adjectives, depending on how far removed the style is from its fashionable days
The theory of the shifting erogenous zones suggests:
The female body is divided into a series of sterilized zones that are singularly uncovered to create fashion interest
The purpose of fashion is to:
Create a sense of identity
The demise of serviceable fashions that are then replaced by newer, seemingly more attractive fashions is:
Businesses can segment a target market using demographics, psychographics, behavioral characteristics, or geographics
The strategy for the coordination of all marketing tools to ensure a united front and maximization of communication impact is
Integrated marketing strategy
The target customer is the chosen market segment, and the target market is the businesses or individuals within the group
With relationship marketing, marketers attempt to create strong relationships with the best customers by offering valued product and service packages
_____ variables include values, attitudes, beliefs, opinions, interests, and lifestyles
The term "geographic segmentation" refers to the process of dividing the marketing into groups that may be:
All of the above are correct
The mutually satisfying exchange between a buyer and a seller is termed ______
The image associated with a company or brand in the customer's mind in relation to the four P's of marketing is known as _____
The deliberate and strategic change in the four P's of marketing to create a different image in the customer's minds is
The point of distinction or special capabilities of a retailer are known as:
All of the terms are correct
A fashion product life cycle has four stages; rise, growth, culmination, decline, and obsolescence
The prediction of trends in colors, prints, styles, and fabrics for apparel and accessories is
The gathering of quantitative research data relies on sufficient amounts of data, so results reflect the target population
Which of the following is not an adopter group corresponding to the fashion product life cycle?
The type of data in which facts are gathered specifically to answer a research problem is called
Which of the following is not one of the seven steps of fashion research?
All of the above are steps in the research process
The fashion product life cycle curve that depicts a quick rise in popularity and a quicker decline in popularity is the:
The fashion product life cycle that depicts a product popular over a relatively long period of time is a
When a large percentage of the population has adopted a fashion, and everyone who wants the fashion wears it, the fashion is in the _____ stage of the life cycle
In general, the price of a fashion is usually higher in the _____ stage of the life cycle
When the retailer and the manufacturer share the cost of a product advertisement, the term used is
The illegal practice of manufacturing replicas and fake merchandise disguised as authentic originals creates ____ products
Positioning is placing the brand in the consumers' minds so that consumers perceive it in a particular way
When marketers attempt to position a product, they attempt to change customer perception from a firmly held belief to a different view
Which marketer uses branding to demonstrate superior attributes to target customers?
Which term is used to refer to the positive feelings and added value that consumers associate with a brand?
None of the above is correct
Brands with national distribution that are available nationwide in competing stores are
None of the above is correct
The contractual agreement between a licensor and a licensee whereby the licensor sells the rights to use its name on merchandise produced by the licensor is termed:
Events that provide opportunities for trade members to make industry contacts, networks, create awareness, view trends, and show innovative products are termed:
Fiber producers, yarn manufacturers, fabric mills, and apparel manufacturers comprise the trade levels in the textile industry
Recent increases in the cost of oil have resulted in the increased production cost of oil-based synthetics and increased transportation costs
Natural fibers are preferred by most top fashion designers because of their beauty, drape and elegance
Unfinished natural or manmade products consumed by a manufacturer and used in the manufacture of finished goods are:
The US produces some of the ____ quality cattle leather and consumes _____ leather and fur than it produces
T or F: When manufacturers decide the total cost of producing a garment, the process is known as costing out a garment.
T or F: A rough draft, or prototype garment, in a common size is referred to as a first sample by manufacturers.
T or F: When customers have input into the production of a mass-produced item, marketers refer to it as niche marketing.
T or F: The decision to purchase component parts and materials from vendors in other parts of the world is called assembling.
Creative individuals who develop new ideas and gain inspiration from things around them are:
Individuals who take popular styles and create knockoffs or adaptations that have marketability are:
Design inspiration for designers originates from ideas around them, such as:
art culture, hollywood, streetwear
The process of determining the most efficient placement of the pattern pieces for a cutting guide is:
The advantages of domestic production include:
lower shipping costs, higher quality, greater quality control, relationship marketing
Contracting with another business to provide products or services used in production is called:
Apparel manufacturing may:
be outsourced to other countries where labor costs are lower and occur near retail outlets
Domestic apparel manufacturing is most commonly used for fashions that sell at:
higher retail prices where increased costs can be more easily absorbed in retail price
T or F: Fashion market centers are geographic regions with a high concentration of fashion trade businesses.
T or F: A limitation in the quantity of imports to protect a domestic industry is a safeguard quota
The top five textile and apparel trading partners with the United States include all of the following except:
china, mexico, india, and indonesia
Goods brought into a receiving country are ______ while goods shipped out of a producing country are ______.
The illegal activity in which quota-restricted goods are shipped to a nearby country prior to being shipped to the receiving country is:
Wholesalers, buying offices, intermediaries, imports, jobbers, and brokers exist at which level of the supply chain?
The wholesale showroom that sells only one brand of goods because it is owned by the branding company is the:
manufacturer owned showroom
Mid-level fashion businesses, located in a major market center, that act as the eyes and ears of the retail store buyers are:
The mid-level businesses that may sell any combination of odd lot assortments, overruns, out-of-season fashions, first quality merchandise, irregular merchandise, and second quality merchandise are:
what are the stages in product development and manufacturing?
market research, idea conception, garment design, costing, pattern making, grading, marking, cutting, assembling, finishing and expecting
what are the principles of fashion?
unity, proportion, balance, harmony, repetition, rhythm, scale and emphasis
what are the elements of fashion?
space, line, shape/form, light, color, texture, pattern, details and trimmings
what is the fashion life cycle?
introduction, rise, acceleration, mass acceptance, decline, and obsolescence
define product development.
how the apparel industry adapts to change and meet changes... creation of marketable ideas that will appeal to the target markets
define vertical integration.
strategy that consolidates supply chain by acquiring a company at another stage in the supply chain
define horizontal integration.
acquisition of companies that make or sell similar products to expand market penetration and reduce competition
define the apparel supply chain.
agriculture, fiber production, textile production, apparel manufacturing, retailers, final consumers
why is indonesia an important sourcing region?
leading supplier of textiles to US cheap labor, vertical integration, and high level quality goods