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  • Fashion occurs in almost every aspect of life.

    True

    Apparel and accessory items become fashions once a designer introduces the style.

    False

    The supply chain consists of producer, manufacturer, wholesaler, retailer, and ultimate consumers.

    True

    The sourcing of textiles and apparel comes from American suppliers because American suppliers offer the lowest costs due to production efficiencies.

    True

    Planned obsolescence is the continual introduction of new and different styles, prints, colors, and fabrics.

    True

    The A-line shift, above-the-knee hemlines, and white go-go boots of the 1960s were introduced by Andres Courreges.

    True

    Many people of the 1970s were dressed in the recommended career ensemble of John T. Malloy.

    True

    Fashion is a reflection of the way of life at a given time.

    True

    In general, fashions evolve from recent previous styles that have changed only slightly.

    True

    The popularity of wearing obvious status symbols waned in the 1990s.

    True

    Because of the vast diversity within the fashion industry, students do not need to know and understand the fundamentals of the industry as well as basic fashion terminology.

    False

    The combined size of the men's and boy's apparel and accessories industries is twice as large as that of the women's apparel and accessories industries.

    False

    Vanity sizing is common at the lower end of the wholesale price zones due to the need to make customers feel good about purchasing inexpensive fashions.

    False

    The major categories of children's apparel and accessories are preemies, newborns, infants, toddlers, children, and preteens.

    True

    The recent recessions have caused a decline in business for the children's wear industry.

    False

    Thorstein Veblen proposed that a style requires group acceptance before it can become a fashion.

    False

    Fashion innovators start fashions, while fashion followers follow fashions.

    True

    The high-low trend in dressing means that people wear more expensive branded pieces with trend-right items at fast-fashion.

    True

    The notion that new fashions evolve from the most recent fashions is referred to as historical continuity.

    True

    A purpose of fashion is to enhance youthfulness.

    True

    Fashion usually emerges first in __________.

    Apparel, Accessories

    For the best career preparations, college students are encouraged to:

    Gain part-time employment
    Have a strong work ethic
    Understand that change will be a constant in their careers

    Why is fashion unique?

    Fashion products appeal to consumer emotions
    Fashion is perishable
    Fashions are available to most income levels of consumers
    Fashion requires group acceptance

    Personal qualities desired in those who pursue fashion careers include:

    Thinking critically, creativity, charisma, and a calculating mind

    Merchandising is providing the:

    Right product at the right time, in the right quantity, at the right price

    Marketers of fashion often use fashion promotions with _____ to sell more fashion.

    Emotives

    The key to the successful marketing of fashions that are popular at the moment is called:

    Speed-to-market
    Speed-to-manufacture
    Speed-to-retailer
    Speed-to-production

    Businesses existing at the beginning of the apparel supply chain are:

    Fiber and yarn production

    Forecasting services and consulting services in the supply chain are known as:

    Auxiliary services

    The supply chain levels (in order) are:

    Producer to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to ultimate consumer

    Women were introduced to pantyhose during the:

    1960s

    Fashion at any time reflects social, political, and economic happenings. A word used to describe this is:

    Zeitgeist

    The women who publicly rejected the wearing of corsets and adopted Turkish trousers under shorter skirts are known as:

    Suffragettes

    Which designer is credited with introducing the New Look to post-World War II America?

    Christian Dior

    The counterculture group that wore black and had a strong influence on hippies was the:

    Goths

    The dress popular when miniskirts were popular was the:

    Maxi dress

    The time during the 1970s when men wore colorful, effeminate clothing was known as the:

    Peacock Revolution

    One of the effects of World War II on the American fashion industry was the:

    Limited contact with French couture houses

    The introduction of nylon by the DuPont Chemical Company occurred in:

    1939

    Slinky, form-fitting bias cut dresses were popular during the:

    1930s

    The women's wear industry wholesale categories include casual sportswear, tailored clothing, and:

    The list is not a reflection of the women's wear wholesale categories

    Wholesale price zones are designated based on

    Cost Quality

    The wholesale zones typical of a department store's main level merchandise are:

    Upper Moderate/Lower Better

    When designers opt to reinterpret select pieces from their signature lines while maintaining the style of the signature collection, the pieces are part of the _____ line.

    Diffusion

    Which of the following is not a distinguishing factor of the men's wear industry?

    There are fewer firms in the men's wear industry
    Companies usually have long histories
    The industry is comprised of vertically integrated firms

    The process of custom tailoring a man's clothes to his specific measurements is:

    Bespoke tailoring

    A current trend in the children's wear industry is:

    An increase in the number of licensed products
    An increase in the influence of children on purchase decisions

    The marketing term for the consumer group between the ages 8 and 12 is:

    Tweens

    Fashion knockoffs of higher-priced items that are quickly copied, produced, delivered, and sold at low prices are:

    Fast fashion

    The broad term for the general direction in which fashion is moving is:

    Trend

    Which of the following is not a fashion principle?

    Fashion is a price

    The fashion theory that states that fashions are first adopted near large metropolitan cities before moving inward toward the central United States is the _____________theory.

    Trickle across

    The _____________theory describes a single fashion using different adjectives, depending on how far removed the style is from its fashionable days.

    Laver

    The theory of the shifting erogenous zone suggests:

    The female body is divided into a series of sterilized zones that are singularly uncovered to create fashion interest

    The purpose of fashion is to:

    Decorate
    Create a sense of identity
    Demonstrate superiority
    Relieve boredom

    Styletribes refers to

    Unique cultural segments

    The demise of serviceable fashions that are then replaced by newer, seemingly more attractive fashions is

    Artificial obsolescence

    The phrase ________ describes the situation in which the lower classes chase (imitate) fashions of the upper class, who then fly to a newer fashion.

    Chase and flight

    Intro: Fashion innovators purchase from the retailers who "lead" fashion

    Rise: Fashion leaders purchase from traditional retailers in their "better" departments

    Acceleration: Fashion followers purchase from traditional retailers in "moderate priced" Departments

    Mass Acceptance:
    Fashion followers purchase from the mass merchants

    Decline: Fashion followers may purchase a few items at greatly reduced priced from discounters

    Obsolescence:
    No one is buying

    The Fashion Cycle

    Which is not an example of push marketing?

    DuPont advertising to consumers

    Businesses can segment a target market using demographics, psychographics, behavioral characteristics, or geographics.

    true

    The four Ps of marketing are product, place, price, and promotion.

    true

    The target customer is the chosen market segment, and the target market is the businesses or individuals within the group.

    false

    Demographics include usage or consumption rates and benefits sought.

    false

    With relationship marketing, marketers attempt to create strong relationships with the best customers by offering valued product and service packages.

    false

    _______ variables include values, attitudes, beliefs, opinions, interests, and lifestyles.

    Psychographics

    The term "geographic segmentation" refers to the process of dividing the marketing into groups that may be:

    all the above; states,cities, continents

    The mutually satisfying exchange between a buyer and a seller is termed _________.

    marketing

    The image associated with a company or brand in the customer's mind in relation to the four Ps of marketing is known as _________.

    none of the above

    The deliberate and strategic change in the four Ps of marketing to create a different image in the customer's minds is:

    repositioning

    The retail price is the amount:

    The ultimate consumer pays for an item

    The point of distinction or special capabilities of a retailer are known as:

    core competency

    A fashion product life cycle has four stages: rise, growth, culmination, decline, and obsolescence.

    false

    The prediction of trends in colors, prints, styles, and fabrics for apparel and accessories is:

    Fashion forecasting

    The illegal practice of manufacturing replicas and fake merchandise disguised as authentic originals creates ___________ products.

    counterfeit

    Fabrics created by interlocking loops of yarn are _____fabrics.

    knitted

    Events that provide opportunities for trade members to make industry contacts, network, create awareness, view trends, and show innovative products are termed:

    trade shows

    The gathering of quantitative research data relies on sufficient amounts of data, so results reflect the larger population.

    true

    Database marketing involves analyzing existing sales or customer data for trends or problems.

    true

    The fashion product life cycle curve for a fashion product resembles a bell-shaped curve.

    true

    Observation methods of research include style testing and market testing.

    false

    Which of the following is not an adopter group corresponding to the fashion product life cycle?

    early miniority

    The type of data in which facts are gathered specifically to answer a research problem is called:

    primary data

    Which of the following is not one of the seven steps of fashion research?

    all of the steps are research process; defining the research problem, selecting the sample, collecting data, reporting the findings

    The fashion product life cycle curve that depicts a quick rise in popularity and a quicker decline in popularity is the:

    fad

    The fashion product life cycle that depicts a product popular over a relatively long period of time is a:

    classic

    When a large percentage of the population has adopted a fashion, and everyone who wants the fashion wears it, the fashion is in the______ stage of the life cycle.

    culmination

    In general, the price of a fashion is usually higher in the _____stage of the life cycle.

    introductory

    When the retailer and the manufacturer share the cost of the a product advertisement , the term used is:

    cooperative advertising

    Trendy, inexpensive apparel items with an intended single-season use are called:

    fast fashion

    The benefits of private label brands include increased store loyalty.

    true

    Consumers have a distinct image of a brand when branding is successfully accomplished.

    true

    Positioning is placing the brand in the consumers' minds so that consumers perceive it in a particular way.

    true

    When marketers attempt to position a product, they attempt to change customer perception from a firmly held belief to a different view.

    true

    Designer brands bear the name of the designer

    true

    Which marketer uses branding to demonstrate superior attributes to target customers?

    all of the above; stores, designers, manuifacturers

    Which term is used to refer to the positive feelings and added value that consumers associate with a brand?

    brand equality and brand franchise

    Private labels are owned by:

    retailers

    Brands with national distribution that are available nationwide in competing stores are:

    designer brands

    The contractual agreement between a licensor and a licensee whereby the licensor sells the rights to use its name on merchandise produced by the licensor is termed:

    licensing

    Original, creative ideas are protected by:

    intellectual property rights

    ______ products are considered a legal, normal, and acceptable means of doing business.

    knockoff

    Copyrights and registered trademarks protect:

    Symbols, logos, and brand names

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