Which of the following is not a part of marketing?
c. Sales promotion
Blue jeans illustrate the concept of "classic" fashion for all of the following reasons except:
a. Blue jeans are a simple design
b. They have had acceptance by many people and by many socio-cultural groups in contemporary society for a long time
c. It has been possible to continually update the basic styling of jeans
d. Blue jeans can be found in all price lines
e. Usually the fashion cycle of blue jeans shows a rapid rise and rapid decline
Which of the following is not a principle of fashion according to the text? Choose one below.
a. Fashion is unpredictable except for those persons who have fashion sense
b. Advertising and promotion cannot change the direction of fashion unless the public is ready for change
c. Fashions are created by consumers through acceptance or rejection of offered designs
d. Fashion change is subtle and gradual and rarely shifts dramatically
e. All fashions end in excess
Answer is A
A) "Fashion is unpredictable except for those persons who have fashion sense."
Which of the following is not an acceptable definition of fashion?
a. Fashion is change
b. Fashion is the current interpretation of any style
c. Fashion is what my customers are wearing
d. Fashion is the prevailing design accepted and worn
at a given time
e. Fashion is a mysterious and unpredictable force that influences all of us
The components of fashion that are changed to create a new fashion are:
a. Silhouette, color, details, line
b. Color, silhouette, details, texture
c. Fiber, color, details, texture
d. Texture, color, fiber, silhouette
e. Details, fabric, color, texture
The components of fashion that change most slowly in today's fashion cycles are:
a. Color, texture
b. Silhouette, line
c. Details, fiber
d. Fabric, values
e. Color, silhouette
Which of the following statements about fads is accurate?
a. Fads are initiated "on the street" and follow the downward theory of fashion dissemination
b. Much of the faddish merchandise is aimed at the mature customer whose desire for change is more openly expressed
c. Fads are more frequently evident in expensive accessories such as fine jewelry and leather goods from well-known producers
d. A typical cycle for a fad is rapid rise, a brief culmination, and an even more rapid decline
e. An item that has the characteristics of a fad will never have a culmination period
Answer is D!
D) "A typical cycle for a fad is rapid rise, a brief culmination, and an even more rapid decline."
Which of the following does not refer to silhouette?
a. Straight or tubular
b. Ruffled or pleated
c. Bell-shaped or bouffant
d. Bustle or back-fullness
e. All of the above refer to silhouette of a garment
"Fashion is evolutionary, not revolutionary" is best explained by which of the following statements?
a. Fashion is influenced by political events
b. Fashion tends to repeat in cycles
c. Fashions tend to change gradually
d. Fashions can "trickle-up" from the streets
e. Fashions are influenced by famous people
Answer is C!
C) "Fashions tend to change gradually"
Which of the following factors has influenced the rate of fashion change?
a. Invention of the sewing machine and man-made fibers
b. Modern communications
c. Live TV coverage of events around the world
d. A larger, more affluent middle class with money to spend
e. All of the above have influenced the rate of fashion change
New designs that are still in the introductory stage of the fashion cycle are generally:
a. Introduced as higher-priced merchandise
b. Worn by large numbers of young people
c. Unrelated to the previous season's fashions
d. Produced in large quantities
e. From Paris
High-fashion merchandise is generally high-priced because:
a. The cost of design experimentation and development must be covered in the price of the high- fashion garment
b. Retailers feel that they can get extra profits from high-fashion merchandise
c. Affluent customers tend to discard clothes after a few wearings
d. Designers and manufacturers of high-fashion goods receive very high salaries
e. Stores must often take large markdowns on high-fashion merchandise selected to give the store a fashion image
The culmination stage of a fashion may be extended:
a. If a fashion becomes a classic
b. If changes in details are continually introduced
c. If the fashion has been created by a leading designer
d. If the item is heavily advertised
e. a and b
When fashion apparel is in a cycle break, consumer interest often turns to:
c. Luxury non-apparel items
e. Fashions worn only by A-list celebrities
"All fashions end in excess" is one of the:
a. Principles of fashion
b. Most quoted falsities
c. Best campaign slogans for designers
d. None of the above
e. All of the above
Answer is A: "Principles of fashion"
Individuals who have the most influence on the continued success of the fashion industry in the United States are:
a. Magazine editors
b. Fashion followers
c. Retail buyers
d. Fashion innovators
e. Leading Paris designers
Where in the fashion cycle would fashion innovators most likely be located?
a. Introduction stage
b. Rise stage
c. Culmination stage
d. Decline stage
e. Obsolescence stage
Which of the following is not a measure of demographics?
a. Marital status
e. What type of car a person owns
The answer is E - "What type of car a person owns" is NOT a measure of demographic
Which of the following is not a cultural condition that favors stability in dress?
e. Limited technology
Money that an individual or family has left over after providing for food, basic clothing, shelter, taxes, and transportation is called:
a. Personal income
b. Disposable income
c. Discretionary income
d. Net income
e. Gross income
Wars and disasters tend to make people:
a. Revert to styles previously fashionable
b. Develop a need for fashions compatible with their altered environment and attitudes
c. Adopt the styles of their national leaders
d. Seek new and individually distinctive fashions
e. Discard their wardrobes for others that are military-inspired
Physical mobility has contributed to changing fashion demand in all of the following ways except one. It is that:
a. Distinctive regional patterns of dress are recognized and adhered to in the United States
b. Customers seek out-of-season merchandise for their travels to areas with different climates
c. Knock-offs of French couture designs can be found and purchased in local stores the season after they are shown in Paris
d. A broader merchandise selection is needed to satisfy more sophisticated consumers who are exposed to many cultures
e. Consumers who are transferred in their jobs from one part of the
country to another bring their clothing preferences with them
Answer is A!
A) Distinctive regional patterns of dress are recognized and adhered to in the United States
All of the following except one are economic factors currently being studied by fashion professionals to predict consumer demand. It is:
a. The increasing number of people over age 65
b. The continuing inflationary spiral
c. The rise in minimum wages
d. Changes in birthrate
e. The trend toward a more casual lifestyle
Individual demand for fashion goods is affected by:
a. Short-term economic trends
b. Long-term economic trends
c. The amount of disposable income the individual has on hand at a given time
d. Consumer expectations about future economic affluence
e. All of the above
Studies that divide broad groups of consumers into smaller, more homogeneous target segments are called:
Which of the following age groups of consumers is most responsive to fashion change?
Which of the following is the more significant figure to fashion producers and marketers?
a. Per capita personal income
b. Disposable personal income
c. Discretionary income
d. Personal income
e. Take-home pay
Which of the following statements about psychological factors influencing fashion is not true?
a. Satisfaction with things as they are is a primary factor in accelerating fashion change
b. Curiosity and the need to experiment keep fashion demand alive
c. The majority of the population tends to adhere to convention in dress
d. Often the need to overcome feelings of inferiority can be satisfied through apparel
e. A person's selection of apparel can be a bid for companionship
In successful fashion
merchandising, designs that have consumer acceptance appear in the
greatest volume in retail stores when the design is on which point in
the fashion cycle?
b. Early rise
c. Late rise
Answer is E!
Which of the following is worn by most of the American public?
a. Prophetic fashions
b. Innovative fashions
c. High fashion
d. Mass or volume fashion
The designer who uses his or her talents to adapt or change the successful designs of others and works for a manufacturer is called a(n):
a. High fashion or "name" designer
c. Freelance designer
e. Couture designer
The horizontal-flow/trickle across theory of fashion adoption is dependent on:
a. The fact that garments from couture designers can be copied line-for-line
b. A youth-oriented culture that makes all age groups desire to dress alike
c. The introduction of new styles to many social groups at approximately the same time
d. Strong promotional efforts by manufacturers and retailers
e. Unisex dressing, which allows men and women to wear the same kinds of garments
Fashion influentials must have which one of the following traits?
a. A great deal of time to devote to clothing selection
b. Riches and fame
c. Impeccably good taste
d. A desire to flaunt tradition
e. Popularity within their group so that others are prone to copy them
Which of the following statements about fashion followers is not accurate?
a. The mass fashion industry is profitable because there are many followers
b. Within any group, the majority of individuals tend to be followers
c. Observations of fashion influentials help industry planners predict the directions in which fashion followers will go
d. Fashion followers purchase the same thing season after season
e. Fashion followers exhibit mixed feelings about a new design; they both want and fear the selection of something unfamiliar
The difference between a fashion innovator and a fashion influential is:
a. The innovator wears extreme high-fashion styles while the influential wears classic styles
b. The innovator is first to try new styles; the influential is the person whose adoption of a new style gives it prestige among a group
c. The term "fashion innovator" refers to fashion directors in major specialty stores; "fashion influential" refers to consumers who are fashion leaders in their community
d. Fashion innovators affect only a small segment of the population, while the fashion influentials have a nationwide effect on fashion
e. There is basically no difference between the two
Which theory of fashion adoption probably has the least acceptance today?
a. Upward flow/trickle up
b. Downward flow/trickle down
c. Horizontal flow
d. Trickle across
e. Mass market
The upward-flow/trickle-down theory of fashion adoption depends on which group of consumers to exert the strongest influence?
a. Young members of the lower-income groups
b. Media stars
c. Political figures who are influential on the social scene
d. The very wealthy who are relatively conservative
e. College-educated children of lower-income groups
The upward-flow theory is illustrated by:
a. Copies of a Paris design being seen in a department
b. A top New York designer developing a collection for a major department store chain
c. Several department stores advertising the same fashions at the same time
d. Coveralls, the uniform of the laborer, becoming popular casual wear for teens in affluent neighborhoods
e. a and b
The designer who creates designs for several manufacturers, either doing adaptations or original designs, is called a:
a. High fashion or name designer
c. Freelance designer
e. Couture designer
Practical business considerations imposed on fashion designers include:
a. Producing designs at a profit
b. Producing designs within the firm's predetermined wholesale price range and fashion image
c. Availability and cost of materials
d. Available production techniques and labor costs
e. All of the above
The individuals who have the most influence on the continued success of the fashion industry in this country are:
a. Fashion influentials
b. Fashion followers
c. Retail fashion buyers for major department stores
d. Fashion innovators
e. Leading Paris designers
The primary objective of a business is to:
a. Attract customers
b. Continually increase sales
c. Expand its facilities
d. Produce goods and services
e. Make a profit
The secondary level of the fashion industry:
a. Is composed of growers and producers of the raw materials of fashion
b. Is the ultimate distribution level
c. Is the retailer
d. Is composed of manufacturers and contractors of finished apparel
e. Is the level that functions with all other levels simultaneously
The advantages of this type of business include ownership of all profits, freedom and flexibility, and ease and low cost of organization and dissolution. It is a:
a. Sole proprietorship
Mergers or acquisitions between companies in unrelated industries are called:
a. Vertical mergers
b. Horizontal mergers
c. Amalgamated mergers
d. Conglomerate mergers
Unlimited liability means that all debts attributable to a business can be the responsibility of:
d. Board of directors
The most common type of business in the United States is a:
d. Sole proprietorship
The term used to describe the sale of one company to another is called:
a. Vertical acquisition
b. A takeover
c. A merger
e. Internal growth
Which of the following originally outlawed monopolies?
a. Clayton Act
b. Federal Trade Commission Act
c. Robinson-Patman Act
d. Wheeler-Lee Act
e. Sherman Antitrust Act
Which of the following is not an advantage of a franchise?
a. Franchisee can get into business quickly
b. Franchisee can use proven operating methods
c. Franchisee benefits from training programs and mass purchasing offered by franchiser
d. Franchisee has a great deal of individual control over the business
e. Franchiser needs less capital for expansion
The first person to license his or her name to a product was:
a. Pierre Cardin
b. Christian Dior
c. Michael Jordan
d. Coco Chanel
e. Oscar de la Renta
As consumers become more knowledgeable about their growing choices in their buying behavior, marketers are paying more attention to psychographic factors as they attempt to identify and meet the demands of their target customers.
According to the dictionary's definition of fashion, "fashion" is basically limited to men's, women's, and children's clothing and accessories.
Merchandising is the planning involved in getting the right merchandise, at the right price, in the right quantities, in the right location, with the right sales promotion, at the right time.
The concept of "good taste" is based on sound principles of modesty, appropriateness, and beauty that do not change.
A consumer is always a customer when he or she makes a purchase, but a customer making a purchase is not always a consumer.
Dior broke the rules of fashion by creating evolutionary designs that were immediately accepted by women after World War II.
True? Double check
The term "style number" is used in the fashion industry to refer to the number assigned to each individual item purchased.
To be considered a fashion, an article of clothing must be accepted by the majority of a given group.
Extensive advertising efforts cannot reverse the trend of a fashion that is declining in popularity.
The timing and rate of decline of the consumer-use cycle is usually just ahead of the consumer buying cycle.
Fashion moves quickly from one area of the body to another in an attempt to find a new source of interest.
Specialty stores generally mark down merchandise right before it reaches the obsolescence stage of the fashion cycle.
A fashion cycle that is broken or abruptly interrupted by outside influences will generally resume once the influence is gone.
This season's haute couture collection by a top Paris designer would be located at the rise stage of the fashion cycle.
Some fashions on the markdown racks of a successful department store would be located at the decline stage of the fashion cycle.
By using the fashion cycle concept, a merchant is able to more accurately recognize the point at which markdowns should be taken.
The only impact of the changed status of minority groups in the United States with regard to fashion is that members of these groups now have more money to buy more clothing and accessories.
Economically backward countries usually retain national customs in dress longer than do more advanced nations.
In their own way, styles recur in fashion acceptance, although never exactly as they were in the past because of differing environmental conditions.
There is a direct relationship between the growth and strength of the middle class and the growth and extent of fashion demand.
Inflation and recession have a direct affect on the inventory assortments and promotional activities of fashion merchants.
The "budget market" turns out adaptations that have survived the introduction stage and are in the rise stage of the fashion cycle.
Being a public figure such as a political leader, entertainer, or sports star almost automatically results in a person's becoming a fashion influential.
A "line" is an assortment of new designs scheduled for delivery from the manufacturer to the retailer during the current season.
Approximately 90 percent of the new designs introduced each season by the fashion industry become fashions that are accepted by consumers.
Larger and more evenly distributed discretionary income enables more people to purchase new things for their fashion appeal rather than just for their utility.
A vertical flow of fashion adoption definitely operates within the fashion industry: famous designers and major manufacturers are studied and copied by lesser-known designers and smaller manufacturers.
Reasons for following rather than leading in fashion include admiration for others, lack of interest, desire to be different, and feelings of inferiority.
Know and understand how each principle and element functions by itself as well as its relation to other principles & elements
Be able to identify emotional, social, political, and/or economic motives consumers have for accelerating, delaying, and following fashion.
Be able to identify the four major levels in the fashion industry. Be able to describe their main purposes and how they interact.
Know and understand the fashion cycle, its stages, and the adoption groups
Intro: Fashion innovators purchase from the retailers who "lead" fashion
Rise: Fashion leaders purchase from traditional retailers in their "better" departments
Acceleration: Fashion followers purchase from traditional retailers in "moderate priced" Departments
Fashion followers purchase from the mass merchants
Decline: Fashion followers may purchase a few items at greatly reduced priced from discounters
No one is buying