Lesson 1-4 Structures Review flashcards |

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Parts of a muscle

Epimysium, perimysium, fascicle, blood vessel, muscle fiber (cell)

Axial Skeleton

Skull, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs

1. Poll
2. Junction of neck and shoulder
3. Sacroiliac area

Three Key junctions of the horse

Cervical vertebra

7 vertebrae

Thoracic vertebra

18 vertebrae

Lumbar vertebra

6 vertebrae

Sacral vertebra

5 fused vertebrae

Coccygeal vertebra

15-22 vertebrae

Appendicular Skeleton

Fore and hind limbs

Atlas Vertebrae

C1 - Pull back issues, can cause problems all through back

Axis Vertebrae

C2 -

Skeletal Muscle

Cause action- movement
- Made up of bundles of fibers

Cardiac Muscle

Makes up the heart

Smooth Muscle

Automatic systems, digestive system


Cause muscle to move through their own contraction


Oppose a specific movement

Muscle - Origin

Attachment point, closest to center of body. Least movable.

Muscle - Belly

Power is created by means of contraction

Muscle - Insertion

Where muscle attaches to cause movement


Number of bones in horses body


Bones in pelvic limb


Bones in thoracic limb

Nuchal Ligament

Begins at poll and ends at withers, helps muscles in the neck to support the head

Skeletal System

Protects vital organs
Provides framework
Supports soft parts

Functions of bones

Act as levers, store minerals, site of red blood cell formation

Categories of Bones

Long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoids

Synovial membranes

Contain synovial fluid which lubricates joints


Bone covering

Principles of Massage

- Be relaxed, in control
- Posture, pressure, contact and rhythm
- Start with Stroking, effleurage, wringing, and kneading
- Take lots of deep breaths
- Go slow

Neck Muscles should be...

Long, smooth, flat

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