Farrier Science Midterm Study! flashcards |

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What is bone made up of?

A protein matrix and materials. Such as calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc and manganese.

How do bones go from growing to mature bones and where?

Endochondrial ossification and it is in the ephipseal cartilage regions.

What four things effect bone growth?

Nutrition, horomones, exercise and stress.

What is the definition of endochonrial ossification?

Where cartilage cells are being transformed into bone cells.

What does it mean for bone growth to be predetermined?

Bone growth is predetermined but how well it is taken care of depends on it.

Why is it good for young foals to run around and play?

Because it stimulates the matrix, literally making more bone remodeling happen, which results in stronger, denser bones.

What happens if a horse is overly exercised?

There is too much pressure and too much effect on the bones, which will create negative bone remodeling.

What is the job of osteoclasts during bone development?

Remove bone and decrease mineralization.

What is the job of osteoblasts during bone development?

Add bone and increase mineralization.

What do both cells (osteoblasts/clasts) do together?

They work together to correctly mineralize the bone while it is growing.

What is the name for the the end of the bone?


What is the name for everything in between the ends of the bone?


Inside the medullary cavity in the bone, what is being produced?

Red blood cells.

What is the name for the outside of the bone?


What is the articular cartilage?

Very ends of long bones that meet other bones for movement.

Even though length growth in a bone might be done, what can still happen?

The density and strength of a bone can change.

What is the process of endochondrial ossification?

The body lays down layers of cartilage cells that helps the bone get longer and longer. They then convert to bone.

What three things affect bone remodeling?

Nutrition (how much mineral in vs. out), exercise (letting them play) and stress (too much exercise).

Why does bone remodeling occur?

Because the bone is constantly changing and changes to fit whatever circumstance the horse may be under.

What are examples of abnormal bone remodeling?

Splints, ringbone, bone spavins in the hock.

What is the definition of correct bone remodeling?

It adjusts bone size and shape but horse remains sound.

What is the definition of incorrect bone remodeling?

Adjusts bone size and shape but results in blemish or unsoundness.

When does bone remodeling stop?

It doesnt, it occurs throughout the horses entire life.

When does the density and circumference of the horses bone typically "max out"?

5-7 years of age.

If a horse has adnormal bone remodeling, can it still be correct?

Yes, as long as they are sound!

How thick the bone is means what?

Determines strength.

What is the most common break in the lower leg?

Torsion break of the cannon bone. "Twisting the cannon bone on a turn."

Horses are very developed to do what?

Run in a straight line.

Where are joint capsules located?

When two ends of bones meet for movement.

How do the joint capsules work and allow for movement?

Synovial membrane is along the inside of the joint capsule while it fills upw ith fluid to make the joints move easily.

What is the classic example of overextended joint capsule?

Wind puffs.

What are the front leg bones from top to bottom?

Scalpula, shoulder joint, humerus, ulna, radius, elbow joint, knee, splint, cannon, sesamoids, long pastern, short pastern, coffin bone navicular bone.

What are the back leg bones from top to bottom?

Pelvis, hip joint, femur, stifle, fibula, tibia, hock, cannon, splint, sesamoids, long pastern, short pastern, coffin, navicular.

What is the general purpose of tendons and ligaments?

To move everything and hold it in position.

What two things do tendons connect?

Connect muscle to bone.

What two things do ligaments connect?

Connect bone to bone.

Are there muscles in the lower leg?


Describe tendons and what their function is.

Elastic and have the ability to stretch and deal with high tension. It has a tendon sheath containing synovial fluid which cushions the regions. Its function is movement.

Describe ligaments and what their function is.

Not as elastic as tendons. Function? Support.

What is a classic sign of too much stress on the tendon sheath?

Wind puffs.

What decreases as you travel down the leg?

Blood supply.

What are the four main functions of tendons and ligaments?

Support (weight bearing), movement, protection (overextension, stress), absorb shock and concussion.

What are tendons and ligaments designed to do?

Hold the lower limb in correct position for locomotion in order to minimize injury and maximize energetics.

How do tendons act like a spring?

They store energy and release energy as they are stretched and relaxed.

What tendon and ligament take the brunt of the force during locomotion?

Superficial flexor tendon and suspensory ligament.

How many tendons form in the front of the front bone?


How many tendons form in the back of the leg?


Whats the tendon name for the front of the cannon?


What is the purpose of the main and lateral tendons on the front of the cannon?

To bring the leg forward.

What is the purpose of the deep and superficial flexor tendons and where are they located?

Bring leg back. They are on the back of the front cannon.

Is it the front or the back where tendons stay seperate or connect?

Front = connect. Back = stay seperate.

Where is the deep digital flexor tendon?

Attaches to the bottom underside of the coffin bone.

What is the purpose of check ligaments?

Prevent overextension.

What are the three check ligaments?

Radial check ligament, subcarpal check ligament, subtarsal ligament.

What is the purpose of the radial check ligament?

Connect flexor tendon to radius.

What is the purpose of subcarpal check ligament?

Connect flexor tendon to underside of the knee.

What is the purpose of the subtarsal ligament?

Connect flexor tendon to underside of hock.

What are annular ligaments?

Bands of tissue that surround the circumference of a bone to hold a tendon in place.

What are capsular ligaments?

Surround a joint capsule and protect the joint capsule to provide extra support.

What are collateral ligaments?

Short bands of tissue that connect small bones of the lower leg. "Band-aids".

What ligaments keep your horse from essentially "rolling their ankles"?

Knee, hock, sesmoidean and navicular ligaments assist in preventing lateral movement!

What is the suspensory ligament?

Wide flat ligament that runs down the back of the cannon and divides multiple times to form a support mechanism "sling", for the fetlock.

What role does the suspensory ligament provide?

Plays major role in shock absorption and support!

What is the difference between a strain and sprain?

Strain is overstretching and weakening. Will inflame. While a sprain is fibers tearing and disconnecting.

How is shock absorption dispersed through the leg?

Starts at the bottom, hoof expands, frog compresses and digital cushions compresses, fetlock heads to the ground, knee compresses (due to all the little bones and fluid), heads up through the leg and dispersed through the muscle sling of the shoulder. Any leftover shock is dispersed through the back and up through the rider.

What is not good about suspensory injuries?

They take a long time to heal and will most likely never heal the same.

What are the five external regions of the hoof?

Hoof wall, sole, frog, coronary band, white line.

What bears the majority of the weight when it strides the ground?

Hoof wall.

What is the hoof wall made up of?

Horne tubules.

When does the hoof wall stop growing?

It doesnt. It grows indefinitely.

What shape is the sole?

Concave in shape.

What is the purpose of the sole?

To act as a suction cup to the ground.

Does the sole grow indefinitely?

It grows to a certain point then sheds.

What is the fuction of the frog?

Shock absorption, traction, aids in circulation (moving the blood up to the heart).

What is the white line?

Junction of the hoof wall and sole. About 1/8" wide. It is the guideline for placing nails.

What is the coronary band?

Border between skin and hoof wall. (Hairline). Site of hoof growth.

What are the five regions of the underside of the hoof?

Toe, quarters, heel, bars and bulbs.

When does hoof wall growth stop?

It doesnt. It grows indefinitely.

What is the sensitive structures in the hoof?

Soft tissue, which are blood vessels, nerve endings, etc., that supply nutrients and oxygen to insensitive structures.

Where does the coronary band supply nutrients?

Hoof wall.

Where does the sensitive laminae supply nutrients?

Insensitive laminae.

Where does the sensitive sole supply nutrients?


Where does the sensitive frog supply nutrients?


What is the collateral cartilage?

On both sides of coffin bone to prevent lateral movement.

What is the interlocking system?

It the system in which that is vital to the health of the hoof and helping support the coffin bone. It goes hoof wall, insensitve laminae, sensitive laminae, coffin bone.

Describe basic blood flow in the hoof.

Blood is forced through the hoof with pressure. Frog and the digital cushion comprss to help "push" blood back out of the hoof.

What are AV shunts?

They allow blood to bypass capillary paths if neccessary. It exists in animals so they can stand out in the snow for a long time and not get frostbit.

What can develop when AV shunts stay open for a long period of time?


How fast does the hoof wall grow?

At a rate of 1/4 - 3/8 inches per month.

What is the average hoof length?

3-4inches measured at the toe.

What four things effect hoof growth?

Blood flow, heart rate, nutrition and age.

How long does it take to grow an entirely hoof?

1 year.

Why does the hoof grow faster in the spring and summer?

Because of moisture levels.

What happens if a horses sensitive structure in their hoof becomes damaged?

Damage to any of the sensitve structures can permantly affect the rate and quality of hoof growth.

What types of things remove moisture from the hoof?

Bedding, mud, sand, most hoof dressings.

What types of things add moisture to the hoof?

Standing water, bathing, certain hoof dressings. (Lanolin oil based is best. stick to light colours)

Why does Vitamin A play a big role in hoof nutrition?

Because it plays a big role in the horne tubule formation.

What is biotin?

A b vitamin.

What is a good quality protein?

Sulfur containing amino acids.

What way will one get the best result out of biotin for their horse and how long will you see a response?

In a three way combo with zinc, methionine combined with at least 15mg/day of biotin. 9-12 months.

Describe the long term study done on biotin.

Followed horses for 3 years on biotin supplementation. Found an improvement in hoof wall quality but no in the rate growth.

What are the four results of limb defects?

Creates unequal weight distribution, crooked movement, poor shock absorption and increased stress.

What does it mean for a horse to be toed out?

long/short pastern bone is crooked. They have the tendency to wing in.

What does it mean for a horse to be toed in?

Long/short pastern crooked in. They have the tendency to wing out.

What are knock knees?

Inward deviation of knees, leads to splints, movement isnt straight.

What are bow legs?

Outward deviation of the legs.

What is bench knee?

Cannon bone doesnt come out of the center of the knee. It puts a lot of stress on the knee.

What does it mean for a horse to be base wide?

Outward deviation of the knees. wider at the base.

What does it mean for a horse to be base narrow?

Inward deviation of the knees. narrower at the base.

What is calf kneed/back at the knee?

Radius is set too far forward.

What is buck kneed/front at the knee?

Radius is set too far back. backbowed shape when viewed from side. dangerous for jumping.

What way does the femur on the horse naturally tilt?


What does it mean for a horse to be cowhocked?

Horse that is pigeontowed in the back.

What does it mean for a horse to be bowlegged?

Horse that has outward deviation of the knees.

Although in the front end, the legs should be straight to the ground, what is unique about the back end?

Not everything needs to be visually straight, everything needs to line up with the femur. Point of hock needs to turn out as much as the femur as well.

From the side, how do you tell if the back leg is the appropriate length and straight?

Point of buttock lined up with the back of the cannon bone.

What does it mean if a horse "plates"?

They swing and walk on a tight rope with their movement.

What is the ideal hoof structure angle from the side?

Around 50 degrees.

What two things need to be on the same angle of the lower leg?

Pastern and hoof angle!

What should the horne tubules look like with the appropiate hoof and pastern conformation?


What should the ideal way the underside of the hoof should look?

Quarters need to be symmetrical, concave sole, large frog.

What two things can happen if pastern angle is not the same?

Broken back and broken forward!

Describe what broken back is.

Pressure is increased and creates strain on the deep flexor tendon which puts more pressure on the navicular bone and can lead to navicular disease. Often happens when the toe is left too long.

Describe what broken forward is.

More pressure on the front of the hoof. Creates a dished shape to the front of the hoof because it collapses. Associated with being club footed. = Can be genetic or an injury.

Describe what club footed is.

It could be genetic or acquired. can vary in severity. Acquired associated with contracted tendons or injury. If it is not genetic, you can fix it in 9mos-1yr.

Describe what underslung heels are.

Horne tubules are not parallel, very difficult to fix, it is considered a weakness, and the heels/bulbs appear to be touching the ground.

What are the three other names for hoof rings?

Fever rings, founder rings or grass rings.

When are rings in the hoof normal?

With change in nutrition, moisture or climate.

When are rings in the abnormal?

High fever and founder.

What do vertical cracks in the hoof due to?

Due to moisture.

What do hornizontal cracks in the hoof due to?

Injury or interference.

If your looking at a hoof from the bottom, how should the width look?

Width of foot 1inch back from the toe and 1/4 inch forward from the heel should be the same.

What are the three things that can contribute to contracted heels?

Lack of moisture, lack of movement and poor shoeing.

What does it mean for a horse to be flat footed?

Sole lacks concavity.

What does it mean for a horse to have a retained sole?

Sole doesnt shed.

What does it mean for a horse to have a dropped sole?

Sole is below the hoof wall surface. Often happens due to founder. Very severe, most horses do not live. Very painful.

What should correct movement look like?

Breakover in center of toe, straight flight and flat landing.

What part of the hoof hits first when the horse steps?


What can affect hoof flight?

Length of toe.

What does a long toe create?

Delays breakover, increases arc of flight early.

What does a short toe create?

Increases breakover, delays arc of flight.

What does it mean if the horse intereferes?:

Opposite legs/feet strike eachother.

What does it mean if a horse overreaches?

Hind toe hits front heel/bulb on same side.

What does it mean if a horse forges?

Hind toe hits sole of front on same side.

What does it mean if a horse scalps?

Front toe hits hind coronary band/pastern area on same side.

What does it mean if a horse speedy cuts?

Galloping: high scalping on the cannon.

What does it mean if a horse brushes?

Opposites hitting at the walk.

What does it mean if a horse crossfires?

Opposite front and hind feet hit at the pace.

What are blemishes/unsoundnesses?

Body's response to stress.

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