Farrier Final! flashcards |

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controls length of hoof wall
balance foot
control growth of sole/frog

When should you start trimming?

1 month

Frequency of trimming depends on?

rate of growth of hoof wall
wear of the foot

Average time between trimming

6-8 weeks

How to trim depends on?

foot conformation
time since last trimming
how horse moves

1. Remove old shoe

remove clinches to prevent hoof wall damage

2. Trim

dead sole/frog

3. Determine

how much hoof wall to trim, before cutting

4. Start trimming at

toe, using each cut as a guide for the next

5. Level foot

with rasp
rasp diagonally across foot

6. Use rasp to smooth

edges of hoof wall

Trimming to go barefoot

leave hoof slightly longer
more dramatic with rasp


condition that exists when there is equal weight distribution while the foot is bearing weight

Toe length

3-4 inches

Symmetry in quarters

parallel coronary band

Wall contour

symmetry in quarters
from underside


large frog

Horn tubules

parallel to each other

Matching pairs

front feet match
hind feet match

Pastern and hoof angle

the same

Long toe

delays breakover
increases action at beginning of arc
increases tension on deep flexor tendon

Short toe

increases breakover
increases action at end of arc
reduces tension on deep flexor tendon

Coronary band contour

measure 7 equally distributed points along the coronary band
plot points on a graph
should form a parabolic curve

Hoof symmetry

apex of frog to inside hoof wall
apex of frog to outside hoof wall
apex of frog to toe
*ideal: all the same

Support dimensions

evaluate weight support through foot

Base distance

toe to heel

load distance

toe to back of cannon

Support dimensions formula

base/load = %
% of load that is made of base

Ideal support dimensions



short base long load
small feet
underslung heels
long pasterns


long base short load
long toe
short, steep pasterns

Four point trim

based on the nature shape of wild horses feet

Location of points

two points at wides part of frog (in line with heels)
two points in front of apex of frog (in line with breakover point)

Wild horses feet

shorter toes
wider through heels
breakover with apex of coffin bone/ frog
less toe in front of coffin bone

More natural to have breakover at?

apex of frog

Wider heels provide?

more support

Sole (four point trim)

bears weight

Benefits of shoes

protect from excessive wear
provides traction
correct stance or gait
assist in pathological conditions

Hot shaping

shape shoe with heat

Cold shaping

no use of heat

Hot fitting

placing hot shoe on foot
foot fits shoe

Cold Fitting

cold shoe, manipulating shoes
make shoe fit foot


designed to bend
use smallest nail possible

Shoe fit

from toe to widest part of quarters, flush with hoof wall
from widest part of quarters to heel, wider, allow room for expansion

Heel of shoe should?

extend slightly beyond natural heel

Nails should be placed

on outside boarder of white line

Nails should never be placed in?

the heels


nail penetrates sensitive structures
treat as puncture wound

"Close" nail

puts pressure on sensitive structure

Extended heels

shoe goes beyond heel


shoe extends at 45 degree angle

Rolled toe

foot is natural shape

Rocker toe

shoe bent upward

Square toe

toes is straight across
most severe

Bar shoes

continuous piece of steel
shifts weight
relieves pressure

Corrective shoeing

correct stance or gait

Periosteal stapling

staples are placed on fast side, allows other side to catch up

periosteal stripping

irritate to stimulate growth

Speed up front

short toe
rolled toe
rocker toe
square toe

Slow down hind

extended heels
long toe

Three principles of therapeutic shoeing

protect foot with pad or shoe
support limb or foot
shift weight


heart bar shoe
rolled toe
rim pad

Navicular disease

egg bar shoe
wedge pad
rolled toe/ rocker toe


mushroom bar shoe
rim pad
rocker toe/ rolled toe


reaction to pain


look for head bobbing

Small circles

aggravate pain on inside

Flexsion test

joint is stressed for 1-2 minutes
asked to jog
test for: knee, fetlock, hock, stifle

Hoof tester

pressure on nails: close nails
pressure on sole: abcess on bruise
pressure on frog: navicular, collateral ligament, deep flexor
pressure on heels: navicular

Nerve block

numbs area
work from ground up


detect problems with bone/joint


soft tissue
tendon, ligament issues

Magnetic resonace imaging (mri)

magnetic fields cause atoms to emit radio-frequency signals that are used to create images

Computed tomography (CT scan)

use x rays to generate cross section images


use heat deduction to find problem areas

Bone scans

radioactive isotopes concentrate in problem areas

Radioactive material

can detect where problem is but not what problem is


injury, sprain, strain
appears imediatly


appears after days/weeks


navicular, arthritis
appears over months/ years


prevent cartilage degeneration

Hyaluronic acid

fake synovial fluid



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