1st Semester Review Muscles flashcards |

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Opens mouth and flexes poll and neck


Flexes the neck, protracts the forelimb

Cervical trapezius

Elevation and abduction of the shoulder and forelimb. Assists in pulling the scapula forward

Thoracic trapezius

Moves the scapula back


Flexes the neck, protracts the forelimb. May also be known as the brachiocephalicus


Causes the elevation and assists the abduction of the forelimbs.

Latissimus dorsi

Retracts foreleg, flexes shoulder joint, stabilization of foreleg.

Cervical serratus

Assists in bringing scapula forward. Raises neck, suspends and stabilizes trunk.

Thoracic serratus

Brings scapula back and stabilizes trunk.


Extends elbow joint, flexes shoulder joint


Longissimus dorsi

Lies in the dorsal aspect of spine between withers and sacrum. Bilaterally extends and stabilizes back. Assists in extending the neck. Unilaterally, contributes to bending the spine.


Rectus capitus dorsalis

Deep, dorso-lateral to the upper cervical spine. Bilaterally elevates the head by extending the poll and upper neck. Flexes and stabilizes neck.


Rectus capitus ventralis

Deep, ventral-lateral to the upper cervical spine. Flexes the poll, flexes, and stabilizes neck.


Longus capitus

Lies ventrally and laterally to the cervical spine. Extension of the longs collie muscle. Flexes the poll and neck. Neck stabilizer.


Elevates and extends neck. Stabilizes the neck.

External abdominal oblique

Raises the abdomen upwards to assist in expiration, defecation, and parturition. Stabilizes and assists the flexion of the thoracolumbar part of the spine.


Int. Inspiration breathing. Ext. Expiration breathing. Together, stabilizes rib cage.

Ascending pectorals

Retracts forelimbs, suspends trunk, stabilizes shoulder


Protraction of limb, flexes shoulder, assists in abduction of limb. Stabilizes shoulder

Biceps brachii

Flexes elbow joint and extends shoulder joint. Part of the "Stay" mechanism.

Extensor carpi radialis

Extends carpus, flexes elbow

Common digital extensor

Extends carpal and digital joints, flexes elbow

Lateral digital extensor

Extension of the fetlock joint

Ulnaris lateralis

Flexes the carpal joint

Flexor carpi radialis

Flexion of the carpal joint and extends elbow

Deep digital flexor

Flexion of the carpal bones and digits; extends elbow.

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Flexes carpal joint

Medial glute

Extension of the hip and abduction and medial rotation of the limb.

Superficial glute

Flexes hip joint; protraction and abduction of the hind limb

Biceps femoris

Flexes stifle joint; extends hip, stifle and hock joints. Abduction of the limb


Flexes stifle; extension of the hip, stifle, and hock joints; medial rotation and adduction of the hind limb


Tension of the lateral femoral fascia; Flexion of the hip; protraction of the hind limb; Extension of the stifle joint; Stabilizes stifle joint


Adduction of the hind leg; assists in flexion of the stifle; extension of hip and hock joints

Quadriceps femoris

Extension of the stifle joint; flexes and stabilizes hip joint

Long digital extensor

Extension of digits, flexes tarsus bones


Flexion of stifle; extension of the hock

Superficial digital flexor tendon

Flexion of digits; extension of tarsus bones


Suspensory ligament

Thoracolumbar fascia


Cranial tibial



Levator Labii


Orbicularis oris


Lower lip depressor


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