1st Semester Final Review flashcards |

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The two things that make up ligaments

Protein and Collagen

Three regions you would find flat bones

Skull, shoulder, ribs

Irregular shaped bones are found where

Vertebrae, carpals, tarsals

Undesirable bone growths may be due to an injury to what?


Joint capsules are sealed by this, which produces a lubricating secretion known as synovial fluid

Synovial membrane

What is the main function of the circulatory system?

To control the blood flow around the body

The nervous system consists of what?

Brain, spinal cord, sensory & motor nerves

List the 4 "T's"

Temperature, texture, tenderness, and tension

Beneficial mechanical effects of massage

Increased circulation, lymphatic drainage, improved metabolism

6 Movements included in petrissage

Kneading, milking, wringing, squeezing, rolling, rocking

When massage is contra-indicated, what movement can be considered?

Passive touch, or laying on of the hands

What system is responsible for the contraction of a skeletal muscle?

Nervous system

What is a trigger point, and where is it found?

Lactic acid build-up. Found in the belly of the muscle

What is a stress point and where is it found?

Small spasm, found in the tendons of the muscle

This occurs when a muscle shortens as it contracts and induces movements in the joints.

Concentric contraction

Back legs are too far under the body

Sickle hock

Opposite of bow hocks

Cow hocked

Works anaerobically producing small amounts of energy quickly but also tire quickly

Fast twitch muscle fibers

Produces energy over a long period, aerobically good for endurance

Slow twitch muscle fibers

Refers to movement where the angle between two bones decreases


Muscle spasms block:

Oxygen, blood flow, and nutrients

Refers to a movement that increases the angle between two joints


Flexes neck and moves shoulder forward


Extends back, lateral flexion of back

Longissimus dorsi

Lateral flexion of trunk, retracts forelimb

Latissimus dorsi

Raises the head and flexes the neck with bi-lateral contraction


Opens the mouth and flexes the poll in head collection


Flexes the shoulder joint, medial and lateral parts extend elbow


Flexes atlanto-occiputal joint when bilaterally contracting. Unilaterally flexes and rotates upper neck to same side. Stabilizer

Rectus capitus

Largest and most important muscle binding the front limbs to the trunk - thoracic sling - jagged in appearance


Draws scapula upwards and forwards

Cervical trapezius

The initial swelling of an injured joint due to the increase production of what

Synovial fluid

Oxygen is important to blood and to cells because

Oxygen is necessary for cell growth and energy

What part of the blood carries minerals, vitamins, sugar, and other foods to the body's cells


What element in the blood is round and considered colorless

White blood cells

Which side of the heart is the tricuspid valve?

Right side

A traveling blood clot


English physician credited with discovering circulation of blood in 1628

William Harvey

American Association of Masseurs and Masseuses was founded in


The original precursor of all other manual and energetic therapies and massage technique..


What stroke is best to break up subcutaneous adhesions...

Skin rolling

Psychological benefits of massage include...

Reduced tension and fatigue, calmer nerves, and reed energy

Large, thin, muscle that covers much of the rib cage.


This muscle acts as a sling, holding up the abdominal cavity

Internal oblique

Massage affects respiration by...

Decreased stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system

A horse trying to take the weight off the front right leg would probably try put more weight on the...

Opposite hind

Muscle contracts and shortens -- movement at the joint


Tension develops in muscle, but there is no change in length


Tension develops while muscle lengthens -- Causes joint movement


Tension develops while muscle shortens -- Causes joint movement


5 "F"s

Flight, freeze, faint, fidget, Fight

Muscles fully contained within the structure under consideration


Muscles are located superficially to the considered structure


Narrow ridge of bone


Raised area on or above a condyle


Small rounded projection


Large rounded or roughened projection


Very large, blunt projection


Sharp, pointed projection


Shallow basin


Round or oval opening


Region of the digital extensor


Region of the masseter


Region of the cervical ventral serratus


Region of the latissimus dorsi


Region of the deltoid


Allow for movement in all directions except rotation, i.e. hip joint

Ball and socket joints

Area within a joint capsule

Articular cavity

The most abundant type of cartilage

Hyaline cartilage

The site at which two or more bones are united with cartilage. Little or no articulation is possible

Cartilaginous joint

Secreted by the synovial membrane, provides lubrication

Synovial fluid

Flexes the digits

Superficial digital flexor

Extends the carpus

Extensor carpi radialis

Connects the forelimb to the trunk and causes the adduction of the forelimb

Descending pectorals

Long muscle when contracting bilaterally, permits the back and neck to extend. Unilaterally, contributes to bending the spine to the same side

Longissimus dorsi

In the extended trot, a horse can be off or lame if what muscle is injured


This muscle connects the shoulder blade to the upper leg bone in the horse


Muscle fibers have bundles of myofibrils which are able to contract due to

Actin and myosin

Is the biceps brachi an elbow extensor

No, it is a flexor

Who wrote numerous articles and books on massage and helped popularize it in the U.S.?

John Harvey Kellogg

Who introduced the Swedish movement system into the U.S. in 1856?

George & Charles Taylor

What action occurs when the splenius muscles are contracting bilaterally?

The neck is flexed

Adduction of the front limb is accomplished by which muscle(s)?


Flexion of the elbow joint, and extension of the shoulder is part of the "STAY" mechanism

Bicep brachi

2 Parts, protraction of the limb, scapula part flexes shoulder joint and assists in abduction of the limb


The shoulder joint is classified as a what joint?


Muscle tension due to increased shortening of fibers is known as...


3 Phase Healing:

Inflammation, repair, remodeling

4 Phase Healing:

Hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, remodeling

The Golgi tendon organ is located where

Golgi apparatus in the tendon

In the stages of healing, debris is capsulated for removal in which stage

Inflammation stage

Pain with movement is dull or achy, not sharp. Which stage of healing is this normally found in

Chronic stage

The intended goal of deep cross-fiber friction massage is to maintain mobility, range of motion and __________ within the soft tissue structures of ligament, tendon, and muscle after an injury.

Reduce scarring

Is it necessary to cool down a horse after a massage?


How long after a shot, should you wait to give them a massage?

7-14 days

C1 is also known as...


C2 is also known as...


Two areas of debris collection

Heart and liver

Debris is eliminated through...

The excretory organs

Three massage preparatory strokes

Effleurage, compression, and percussion

Three massage working strokes

Petrissage, cross-fiber friction, and direct pressure

The study of movement


Three classifications of joints

Fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial

Two major physical effects of massage

Reflexive and mechanical

Direct physical effects of massage


Indirect physical effects of massage


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