79 Matching questions
- One of the most iconic products of IKEA, maker of inexpensive home furnishings, whose vision is "to create a better life for the many," is the LACK table, a 22-inch by 22-inch side table that sells for only $9.99. This is an example of:
- Advantages of decentralized authority
- Mutual-benefit organizations
- The Organization: Three Types
- The Maturity Stage—Very Bureaucratic
- Fit Perspective
- Google, urges engineers to spend 20% of their time on personal projects. This is an example of:
- Four Types of Organizational Culture:
- Organic Organizations
- Organizational Culture
- Marc Benioff is founder of cloud computing business Salesforce.com, a San Francisco company known for its great sense of social responsibility and generosity. Its spirit of philanthropy is embodied in a story called the 1-1-1 rule. "When we started the company," Benioff says, "we took 1% of our equity [stock value] and 1% of our profit and 1% of all our employees' time, and we put it into a... public charity. At the time, it was very easy because we had no profit, we had no time, we had no equity. But then, it turned out that our company is worth, you know, tens of billions of dollars."27 Salesforce.com also runs 10,000 nonprofits for free, doesn't charge universities for its services, and, says Benioff, delivers "hundreds of thousands of hours of community service." This is an example of
- Centralized Authority
- Narrow Span of Control
- Online shoe seller Zappos, encourages managers to spend 10%-20% of their off-work hours with employees. This is an example of:
- The Environment: Integration
- Coordinated Effort
- Reducing Stress
- Four Layers of Diversity FIG 11.3
- The founders of technology company Hewlett-Packard stressed the "HP Way," a collegial, egalitarian culture that gave as much authority and job security to employees as possible. Which level of organizational culture was the company addressing
- Divisional Structure
- Five Traits Important in Organizations
- Two kinds of information that organization charts reveal about organizational structure are
- Workplace Discrimination
- The Youth Stage—Prebureaucratic
- IKEA employees are expected to work hard, inspired by an anecdote from their Swedish founder, Invar Kamprad, in his 1976 "A Furniture Dealer's Testament," in which he recounts how he was berated by his father for failing repeatedly to get out of bed to milk the cows on his family's farm. Then one day he got an alarm clock. "'Now by jiminy, I'm going to start a new life,' he determined, setting the alarm for twenty to six and removing the 'off button.'
- The Organization Chart
- At insurance giant AIG, people worked so hard that the joke around the offices was "Thank heavens it's Friday, because that means there are only two more working days until Monday. Which level of organizational culture were the employees addressing
- Hierarchy of Authority
- When not to Delegate
- Strength perspective
- Mechanistic organizations
- Sexual harassment
- Advantages of centralized authority
- The Big Five Personality Dimensions
- For-profit organizations
- The Midlife Stage—Bureaucratic
- Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
- Line Position
- Employees of New Belgium Brewery in Fort Collins, Colorado, which makes Fat Tire Ale, are given a cruiser bicycle during their first year. After five years, they get a free brewery-hopping trip to Belgium. Ten years of employment is acknowledged with a tree planted in their name in the campus orchard. (The company boasts a 97% employment retention rate.) This is an example of
- AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
- Kia Motors, which fires executives who don't meet their sales goals, is an example of a company with a very aggressive and competitive:
- Common Purpose
- Life Cycle: Four Stages in the Life of an Organization
- Department store retailer J. C. Penney Co. has tried to revamp itself from a traditional, hierarchical culture into one that is more informal and flexible by, for example, allowing such observable artifacts as business-casual dress on weekdays and jeans on Fridays. Which level of organizational culture was the company addressing
- Span of Control
- Common Elements of Organizations
- Simple Structure
- Four Functions of Organizational Culture
- Functional Structure
- The Environment: Differentiation
- Four Factors to Consider in Designing an Organization's Structure
- Expectancy Theory: The Major Elements
- Decentralized Authority
- The Birth Stage—Nonbureaucratic
- Nonprofit organizations
- Four Deceptions in Perception
- Adaptive Perspective
- Matrix Structure
- Understanding current employee needs
- Division of Labor
- Wide Span of Control
- 4 Basic Types of Organizational Structures
- General Motors and UPS are companies that have a formalized, structured work environment aimed at achieving effectiveness through a variety of control mechanisms that measure efficiency, timeliness, and reliability in the creation and delivery of products. This is an example of:
- Three Levels of Organizational Culture
- Staff Position
- Cultures for Enhancing Performance - Three Perspectives
- When to Delegate
- Strategic HR Planning
- How Employees Learn Culture:
- Culture Plus Structure
- a Manager has a limited number of people reporting—three vice presidents reporting to a president, for example, instead of nine vice presidents. An organization is said to be tall when there are many levels with ______________________
- b Important decisions are made by higher-level managers. Very small companies tend to be the most _____________, although nearly all organizations have at least some authority concentrated at the top of the hierarchy. Sears and McDonald's are examples of companies using this kind of authority.
- c 1. No written rules and little if any supporting staff beyond perhaps a secretary.
2. The founder may be a lone entrepreneur.
Michael Dell, who began Dell Computers by selling microcomputers out of his University of Texas college dorm room.
- d 1. Organization becomes bureaucratic, a period of growth evolving into stability.
2. Organization has a formalized bureaucratic structure, staffs of specialists, decentralization of functional divisions, and many rules.
In the 1980s, Apple Computer became a large company with many of these attributes. In 1983, Pepsi-Cola marketer John Scully was hired as a professional top manager. Jobs became chairman. Wozniak left the company.
- e 1. Focuses on achieving equality of opportunity within an organization
2. Steps include recruitment, elimination of prejudicial questions, & establishment of minority hiring goals
3.EEO laws do not allow the use of hiring quotas
- f The tendency of the parts of an organization to draw together to achieve a common purpose.
In a highly integrated organization, the specialists work together to achieve a common goal.
The means for achieving this are a formal chain of command, standardization of rules and procedures, and use of cross-functional teams and computer networks so that there is frequent communication and coordination of the parts.
- g These are voluntary collectives whose purpose is to advance members' interests (examples: unions, trade associations).
- h 1. The vertical hierarchy of authority—who reports to whom, and
2. The horizontal specialization—who specializes in what work.
- i 1. Routine and Technical Matters
-Always try to delegate routine tasks and
routine paperwork. When there are technical
matters, let the experts handle them.
2. Tasks That Help Your Subordinates Grow
-Let your employees solve their own
problems whenever possible. Let them try
new things so they will grow in their jobs.
- j 1. When Looseness & Flexibility Work Best
2. Authority is decentralized, there are fewer rules and procedures, and networks of employees are encouraged to cooperate and respond quickly to unexpected tasks.
3. Sometimes termed adhocracies because they operate on an ad hoc basis, improvising as they go along.
Information-technology companies such as Motorola favor the this arrangement because they constantly have to adjust to technological change.
- k Unifies employees or members and gives everyone an understanding of the organization's reason for being.
- l Thrust: Collaborate
Means: Cohesion, participation,, communication,
Ends: Morale, people development, commitment
- m These are formed to make money, or profits, by offering products or services.
- n Thrust:Control
Means: Capable processes, consistency, process
Ends: Efficiency, timeliness, smooth, functioning
- o 1. Symbols
4. Rites and Rituals
1. Personality____ - physical & mental characteristics responsible for your identity.
2. Internal Dimensions______ - gender, age, ethnicity, race, sex, physical abilities.
3. External Dimensions_____ - education, marital status, religion, income, location, habits.
4. Organizational Dimensions___- work status, content, management, union.
1. Self Actualization
Is a box-and-lines illustration showing the formal lines of authority and the organization's official positions or work specializations. This is the family tree-like pattern of boxes and lines posted in staff break rooms and given to new hires.
- s 1. Mechanistic vs. Organic organizations
2. Environment: Differentiation vs. Integration
3. Life cycle stages
4. Link between strategy & structure
- t The common purpose is realized through________________the coordination of individual efforts into a group or organization-wide effort. Although it's true that individuals can make a difference, they cannot do everything by themselves.
- u 1. Rigidity & Uniformity Work Best
2. Authority is centralized, tasks and rules are clearly specified, and employees are closely supervised.
3. Are bureaucratic, with rigid rules and top-down communication.
This kind of structure is effective at McDonald's because the market demands uniform product quality, cleanliness, and fast service.
- v 1. The Strength Perspective: Success Results When a Firm Has a Strong Culture
2. The Fit Perspective: Success Results When Culture Fits with the Firm's Business Context
3. The Adaptive Perspective: Success Results When Culture Helps the Firm Adapt
Assumes that an organization's culture must align, or fit, with its business or strategic context.
Prior to the arrival of Carleton Fiorina as CEO, Hewlett-Packard's "HP Way" culture from 1957 to the early 1990s pushed authority as far down as possible in the organization and created an environment that emphasized integrity, respect for individuals, teamwork, innovation, and an emphasis on customers and community improvement.
- x 1. Understanding current employee needs
2. Predicting future needs
- y Thrust: Compete
Means: Customer focus, productivity, enhancing
Ends: Market share, profitability, achievement
- z Thrust: Create
Means: Adaptability, creativity, agility
Ends: Innovation, growth, cutting-edge output
Assumes that the most effective cultures help organizations anticipate and adapt to environmental changes.
Led by Jerry Garcia, the Grateful Dead lavished special attention on its most loyal fans, known as the Deadheads. It set up a telephone hot-line to alert them to its tour dates ahead of any public announcement. It reserved some of the best seats for some of them, which it distributed through its own mail-order house. "Treating customers well may sound like common sense," says Green. "But it represented a break from the top-down ethos of many organizations of the 1960s and '70s." It was not until the 1980s that competition from Japan compelled American CEOs to adopt a customer-first orientation.
- ac Level 1: Observable Artifacts—Physical Manifestations of Culture
- ad 1. Job is to enforce __ANTIDISCRIMINATION___ and other employment-related laws
2. Established under Title _VII_ of 1964 Civil Rights Act
- af Level 1: Observable Artifacts—Physical
Manifestations of Culture
Level 2: Espoused Values—Explicitly Stated Values &
Level 3: Basic Assumptions—Core Values of the
People with diverse occupational specialties are put together in formal groups by similar products or services, customers or clients, or geographic regions.
People with similar occupational specialties are put together in formal groups.
This is a quite commonplace structure, seen in all kinds of organizations, for-profit and nonprofit.
A manufacturing firm will often group people with similar work skills in a marketing department, others in a production department, others in finance, and so on. A nonprofit educational institution might group employees according to work specialty under faculty, admissions, maintenance, and so forth.
- ai Adhocracy Culture
- aj Market Culture
- ak Is the obligation you have to perform the tasks assigned to you. With more authority come more ________________.
- al Stories
- am Important decisions are made by middle-level and supervisory-level managers. Among the companies using ______________ authority are General Motors and Harley-Davidson.
Assumes that the strength of a corporate culture is related to a firm's long-term financial performance.
A case could be made that the strong cultures of American automakers for many years made them resistant to the need to make radical adjustments.
- ao Have authority functions; they provide advice, recommendations, and research to line managers. Examples: specialists such as legal counsels and special advisers for mergers and acquisitions or strategic planning. Indicated on the organization chart by a dotted line (usually a horizontal line).
- ap 1. Consists of unwanted sexual attention that creates an adverse work environment
2. QUID PRO QUO_ - tangible economic injury; "this for that"
3. HOSTILE - offensive work environment
- aq Also known as the chain of command, is a control mechanism for making sure the right people do the right things at the right time.
- ar 1. Job analysis
2. Job description
3 Job specification
- as Level 2: Espoused Values—Explicitly Stated Values & Norms
- at 1. Organization becomes very bureaucratic, large, and mechanistic.
2. The danger at this point is lack of flexibility and innovation.
After Jobs was fired in a boardroom struggle in 1985, Apple entered a period in which it seemed to lose its way, having trouble developing successful products and getting them to market. Scully, who emphasized the wrong technology (a "personal data assistant" called Newton, which failed to establish a following), was followed by two more CEOs who were unable to arrest the company's declining market share. In 1997, Jobs was brought back as a "temporary" chairman, and Apple began an unprecedented era of innovation and profitability.
- au Managers must report and justify work results to the managers above them.
- av 1. Employee Assistance Programs (EAP)
2. Holistic_ Wellness Program - nutrition, relaxation, exercise
3. Supportive work environment
4. Make jobs _interesting___
5. Provide career counseling
- aw Rites & Rituals
- ax Heroes
- ay 1. For-profit organizations.
2. Nonprofit organizations.
3. Mutual-benefit organizations.
- az These are formed to offer services to some clients, not to make a profit (examples: hospitals, colleges).
- ba Level 3: Basic Assumptions—Core Values of the Organization
- bb -System of shared beliefs and values that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members
-Also called corporate culture
- bc Have authority to make decisions and usually have people reporting to them. Examples: the president, the vice presidents, the director of personnel, and the head of accounting. Indicated on the organization chart by a solid line (usually a vertical line).
- bd Culture can powerfully shape an organization's long-term success.
1. It Gives Members an Organizational Identity
2. It Facilitates Collective Commitment
3. It Promotes Social-System Stability
4. It Shapes Behavior by Helping Employees Make Sense of Their Surroundings
- be 1. Managers are encouraged to solve their own problems rather than buck decisions to a higher level.
2. Decisions are also made more quickly, increasing the organization's flexibility and efficiency.
- bf 1. Confidential & Personnel Matters
-Any tasks that are confidential or that
involve the evaluation, discipline, or
counseling of subordinates should never be
handed off to someone else.
-By definition, an emergency is a crisis for
which there is little time for solution, and
you should handle this yourself.
3. Special Tasks That Your Boss Asked You to
Do—Unless You Have His or Her Permission
-If your supervisor entrusts you with a special
assignment, such as attending a particular
meeting, don't delegate it unless you have
permission to do so.
- bg Hierarchy Culture
- bh 1. Stereotyping_________
-Attribute characteristics to an individual based on the group to which they belong (sex, age, race)
-Formation of an opinion based on a single trait
3. Recency effect_______
-The most recent impressions are the ones that count
4. Casual Attributions______
-Inferring causes for observed behavior(attribute poor performance to lack of effort rather than training)
- bi 1. Common Purpose: The Means for Unifying Members
2. Coordinated Effort: Working Together for Common Purpose
3. Division of Labor: Work Specialization for Greater Efficiency
4. Hierarchy of Authority: The Chain of Command
5. Span of Control: Narrow (or Tall) Versus Wide (or Flat)
6. Authority, Responsibility, & Delegation: Line Versus Staff Positions
7. Centralization Versus Decentralization of Authority
- bj Also known as work specialization, is the arrangement of having discrete parts of a task done by different people.
Organization combines functional and divisional chains of command in a grid so that there are two command structures—vertical and horizontal.
The functional structure usually doesn't change—it is the organization's normal departments or divisions, such as Finance, Marketing, Production, and Research & Development.
The divisional structure may vary—as by product, brand, customer, or geographic region.
- bl Refers to the rights inherent in a managerial position to make decisions, give orders, and utilize resources.
In the military, of course, orders are given with the expectation that they will be obeyed, disobedience making one liable to a dishonorable discharge or imprisonment. In civilian organizations, disobeying orders may lead to less dire consequences (demotion or firing), but subordinates are still expected to accept that a higher level manager has a legitimate right to issue orders.
- bm is the process of assigning managerial authority and responsibility to managers and employees lower in the hierarchy.
- bn 1. Locus of control
2. Self Efficacy
4. Emotional Intelligence
5. Organizational Behavior
- bo 1. The organization is in a stage of growth and expansion.
2. The company has a product that is making headway in the marketplace, people are being added to the payroll (more clerical than professional), and some division of labor and setting of rules are being instituted.
For Apple Computer, this stage occurred during the years 1978 to 1981, with the establishment of the Apple II product line.
Often found in a firm's very early, entrepreneurial stages, when the organization is apt to reflect the desires and personality of the owner or founder.
Authority centralized in a single person, a flat hierarchy, few rules, and low work specialization.
Both Hewlett-Packard and Apple Computer began as two-man garage startups that later became large.
- bq This means a manager has several people reporting—a first-line supervisor may have 40 or more subordinates, if little hands-on supervision is required, as is the case in some assembly-line workplaces. An organization is said to be flat when there are only a few levels with ________________________
- br Clan Culture
- bs 1. Simple
- bt 1. Occurs when people are hired or promoted, or denied _OPPORTUNITIES__, for reasons not relevant to the job
2. Two types of discrimination
a. ADVERSE IMPACT_ - employment practices result in unfavorable outcomes to a protected class
b. DISPARATE TREATMENT___ - when employees from protected groups are intentionally treated differently
- bv The
tendency of the parts of an organization to disperse and fragment. The
more sub-units into which an organization breaks down, the more highly
differentiated it is.
For example, a company producing dental floss, deodorants, and other personal care products might have different product divisions, each with its own production facility and sales staff.
Once a strategy has been created that reflects an organization's vision, managers must design the kind of culture and structure that will motivate and coordinate employees in achieving the organization's goals.
- bx 1. Stage 1. The Birth Stage—Nonbureaucratic
2. Stage 2. The Youth Stage—Prebureaucratic
3. Stage 3. The Midlife Stage—Bureaucratic
4. Stage 4. The Maturity Stage—Very Bureaucratic
- by 1.
There is less duplication of work, because fewer employees perform the
same task; rather, the task is often performed by a department of
2. Procedures are uniform and thus easier to control; all purchasing, for example, may have to be put out to competitive bids.
- bz Also known as span of management, refers to the number of people reporting directly to a given manager.
-how outgoing, talkative, sociable, and assertive a person is
-how trusting, good-natured, cooperative,
and soft-hearted one is
-how dependable, responsible,
achievement-oriented, and persistent one
4. Emotional Stability_________
-how relaxed, secure, and unworried one is
5. Openness________ to __experience__________
-how intellectual, imaginative, curious, and
broad-minded one is