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172 Matching questions

  1. Human resource management (HRM)
  2. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
  3. Locals
  4. Alliance purposes
  5. Why Business uses the Internet
  6. Storage Warehouse
  7. Trading blocs
  8. Physical Distribution
  9. Two commercial uses of AI
  10. Supply Chain Management (SCM)
  11. The North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA)
  12. How do nations trade to exploit their advantages?
  13. A qualified person
  14. Customer Value Triad
  15. Disadvantages of performance appraisals
  16. Culture
  17. Foreign direct investment (FDI)
  18. Intranet
  19. Cloud Computing
  20. Security challenges of eCommerce
  21. Advantages of hiring externally
  22. Lockout
  23. Ways to deal with local laws and regulations
  24. Types of benefits
  25. job sharing
  26. Disadvantages of temp workers
  27. Strike
  28. Telecommuting
  29. Arbitration
  30. Steps to forecast future hiring/firing needs
  31. Encryption
  32. International franchise agreement
  33. Salary
  34. The euro
  35. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1964
  36. Development
  37. Picketing
  38. Value Chain
  39. Criticisms of IMF and World Bank
  40. Absolute advantage
  41. The Equal Pay Act of 1963
  42. Databases
  43. Labor union
  44. Distribution channels: Selling through wholesalers
  45. Browsers
  46. Disadvantages of cloud computing
  47. Recruiting
  48. World Bank
  49. Joint ventures
  50. Companies that do business online are also vulnerable to illegal activities.
  51. Cons of trade controls
  52. Criticism of MNC Culture
  53. Benefits of performance appraisals
  54. on-the-job training
  55. balance of payments
  56. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  57. International contract manufacturing/outsourcing
  58. labor-union density
  59. Materials Handling
  60. Application
  61. Why emphasize diversity in the workplace?
  62. eCommerce
  63. Labor federation
  64. Incentive programs
  65. Exchange rate
  66. Interview
  67. foreign subsidiary
  68. Debate over link to salaries
  69. Employed at will
  70. Just-in-time Production
  71. National unions
  72. Piecework
  73. Discrimination
  74. Subsidies
  75. Why has unionization in the private sector declined?
  76. selection process
  77. job analysis
  78. Exporting
  79. off-the-job training
  80. Extranet
  81. European Union (EU)
  82. Dependent care
  83. Data mining
  84. Why are employees fired?
  85. CAD
  86. Comparative advantage
  87. Distribution channels: Selling through retailers
  88. Trade controls
  89. Trade deficit
  90. Embargo
  91. Supply Chain
  92. Internet
  93. Importing
  94. job rotation
  95. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
  96. strategic alliance
  97. Chief information officer (CIO)
  98. World Trade Organization (WTO)
  99. Job enrichment
  100. Mediation
  101. Offshoring
  102. Support of MNC Culture
  103. Intercultural Communication
  104. Wages
  105. Tariffs
  106. Title I and Title V of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
  107. stock-option plans
  108. By helping employees combine satisfying careers and fulfilling personal lives...
  109. Trade surplus
  110. Attracting
  111. Absolute quota
  112. strategic human resource planning
  113. trade surpluses aren't necessarily good for a nation's consumers
  114. Advantages of hiring internally
  115. Transportation
  116. Distribution Center
  117. Time and Sociability Challenges
  118. Secure sockets layer (SSL)
  119. Distribution
  120. shop stewards
  121. Checkout
  122. international licensing agreement
  123. Bonuses
  124. Flextime
  125. Language challenges
  126. Profit Margin
  127. Multinational Corporation (MNC)
  128. Artificial Intelligence
  129. Contingent workers
  130. Job description
  131. profit-sharing plan
  132. Downsizing
  133. Retaining
  134. 360 degree feedback
  135. The Economic Environment
  136. Wholesaler
  137. How to find candidates
  138. High-context cultures
  139. Employment at will doctrine
  140. Grievances
  141. Low context cultures
  142. Advantages of temp workers
  143. upward feedback
  144. Commission
  145. Dumping
  146. Collective bargaining
  147. Quota
  148. Companies and employees who are unmarried without children?
  149. Strikebreakers
  150. Data warehouse
  151. ASEAN
  152. CAM
  153. Boycotting
  154. Distribution channels: Selling directly to customers
  155. To prepare for a global career, you might want to consider doing some of the following while a student:
  156. orientation
  157. Job specification
  158. Tariff-rate quota
  159. benefits
  160. Retailer
  161. CIM
  162. Intermediary
  163. World Wide Web
  164. How do companies enforce self-care?
  165. Performance appraisal
  166. turnover
  167. MERCOSUR
  168. Balance of trade
  169. Advantages of cloud computing
  170. Pros of trade controls
  171. How to do a performance appraisal
  172. job enlargement
  1. a an intranet that's partially available to certain parties outside the organization
  2. b an immense global network comprising smaller interconnected networks linking millions of computers around the world
  3. c -taxes on imports
    -Because they raise the prices of foreign goods, they make them less competitive
  4. d the system of shared beliefs, values, customs, and behaviors that govern the interactions of members of a society
  5. e Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand; cooperating to reduce mutual barriers; Association of Southeast Asian Nations
  6. f -exists when a country can produce a product at a lower opportunity cost compared to another nation.
    -Opportunity costs are the products that a country must decline to make in order to produce something else.
  7. g -subsystem of the Internet that communicate with each other using a special language called HTTP
    -The Internet is a packet-delivery service that delivers such items as e-mail messages all over the globe. The Web, by contrast, is composed of information—documents, pictures, sounds, streaming videos, and so on. It's connected not through cables, but rather through hypertext links that allow users to navigate between resources on the Internet
  8. h -being evaluated by several people (not only those above you in the organization but those below and beside you)
    -the purpose is to ensure that employees (mostly managers) get feedback from all directions—from supervisors, reporting subordinates, coworkers, and even customers.
    -If it's conducted correctly, this technique furnishes managers with a range of insights into their performance in a number of roles.
  9. i they know exactly what you bought, price, what they need to replace, patterns, time of day/week, number of customers
  10. j the entire range of activities in delivering value to customers; by focusing on the interrelated links in its value chain, a company can increase product quality, provide better service, and cut prices
  11. k -many U.S. companies manufacture their products in countries where labor costs are lower.
    -It will, however, retain control of product design and development and put its own label on the finished product.
  12. l -A country's level of economic development can be evaluated by estimating the annual income earned per citizen
    - actors conducive to economic growth include a reliable banking system, a strong stock market, and government policies to encourage investment and competition while discouraging corruption. It's also important that a country have a strong infrastructure—its systems of communications (telephone, Internet, television, newspapers), transportation (roads, railways, airports), energy (gas and electricity, power plants), and social facilities (schools, hospitals)
  13. m -allows employees to rotate from one job to another on a systematic basis, eventually cycling back to their original tasks
    -Rotated employees develop new skills and gain experience that increases their value to the company, which benefits management because cross-trained employees can fill in for absentees, thus providing greater flexibility in scheduling
  14. n permits the import of a specified quantity and then adds a high import tax once the limit is reached.
  15. o -annual income given in addition to salary; based on company-wide performance
    -Used to be reserved for managerial positions
  16. p -Set goals a performance expectations and specify the criteria that will be used to measure performance
    -Complete a written evaluation that rates performance according to the stipulated criteria
    -Meet with the employee to discuss criteria
  17. q practice of eliminating jobs to cut costs
  18. r two people share one full-time position, splitting the salary and benefits of the position as each handles half the job. Often they arrange their schedules to include at least an hour of shared time during which they can communicate about the job.
  19. s certain members of local unions that serve as go-betweens in disputes between workers and supervisors
  20. t if goods have to be held temporarily while they're en route to their final destinations
  21. u identifies the tasks, responsibilities, and skills that it entails, as well as the knowledge and abilities needed to perform it.
  22. v buying products overseas and reselling them in one's own country
  23. w the amount you earn on each "product"
  24. x -Disruption in Internet service
    -Security
    -Service provider system crash
  25. y encompasses both new-employee orientation and the training and development of current workers.
  26. z allows the company to learn more about you and gives you a chance to learn more about your prospective employer and your possible future in the organization
  27. aa allows a foreign company (the licensee) to sell the products of a producer (the licensor) or to use its intellectual property (such as patents, trademarks, copyrights) in exchange for royalty fees
  28. ab -facilitates trade and finance because exchange-rate differences no longer complicate transactions
    -many of the "euro" countries (Spain, Italy, Greece, Portugal, and Ireland in particular) have been financially irresponsible, piling up huge debts and experiencing high unemployment and problems in the housing market
  29. ac -HR professionals disagree about whether performance appraisals should be linked to pay increases. Some experts argue that the connection eliminates the manager's opportunity to use the appraisal to improve an employee's performance.
    -Others maintain that it increases employee satisfaction with the process and distributes raises on the basis of effort and results
  30. ad -Companies tend to end up with a happier, less stressed, and more productive workforce. The financial benefits include lower absenteeism, turnover, and health care costs
  31. ae you regularly work from home (or from some other nonwork location). You're connected to the office by computer, fax, and phone. You save on commuting time, enjoy more flexible work hours, and have more opportunity to spend time with your family
  32. af -imposes limits on the quantity of a good that can be imported over a period of time
    -used to protect specific industries, usually new industries or those facing strong competitive pressure from foreign firms
  33. ag personal and work relationships are more compartmentalized
  34. ah national unions may be linked by these; provide assistance to member unions and serves as the principal political organ for organized labor
  35. ai an organized group of workers that bargains with employers to improve its members' pay, job security, and working conditions; employees join if there is a conflict between employee and employer needs
  36. aj -tells you how much one currency is worth relative to another currency
    -If a foreign currency goes up relative to the U.S. dollar, Americans must pay more for goods and services purchased from sellers in the country issuing the currency
    -If a foreign currency goes down relative to the U.S. dollar, Americans pay less for products from the country issuing the currency
    -If the U.S. dollar goes up relative to a foreign currency, foreign buyers must pay more for American goods and services (they become more expensive)
    -If the U.S. dollar goes down relative to a foreign currency, foreign buyers pay less for American products
  37. ak -Cost savings (The monthly fee to "use" the software is generally less than the combined cost of buying, installing, and maintaining the software internally)
    -Speed of delivery
    -Scalable (By using cloud computing we are able to have exactly what we need at our disposal at any point in time)
    -Employees can be mobile
    -IT Staff (By using cloud computing, we reduce our human resource needs by shifting some of our work to outside vendors who are able to hire and keep well qualified individuals)
  38. al if you're working on this, you're getting paid for quantity of sales
  39. am the practice of adding tasks that increase both responsibility and opportunity for growth. It provides the kinds of benefits that contribute to job satisfaction: stimulating work, sense of personal achievement, self-esteem, recognition, and a chance to reach your potential.
  40. an -the practice of selling exported goods below the price that producers would normally charge in their home markets (and often below the cost of producing the goods)
    -political rationale for establishing tariffs and quotas
    -Nations resort to this practice to gain entry and market share in foreign markets, but it can also be used to sell off surplus or obsolete goods.
    -creates unfair competition for domestic industries
  41. ao -the process of developing a plan for satisfying an organization's human resources (HR) needs.
    -lays out the steps that an organization will take to ensure that it has the right number of employees with the right skills in the right places at the right times.
    -HR managers analyze the company's mission, principles, or objectives, and strategies.
  42. ap -increased training costs
    -decreased loyalty to the company
    -many employers believe that because temps are usually less committed to company goals than permanent workers, productivity suffers.
  43. aq Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay; Mercado Common del Sur; established to eliminate trade barriers.
  44. ar -Legally required benefits (Social Security and Medicare, unemployment insurance, workers' compensation)
    -Paid time off (vacations, holidays, sick leave)
    -Insurance (health benefits, life insurance, disability insurance)
    -Retirement benefits
  45. as allows employees to focus on learning without the distractions that would occur in the office
  46. at buys goods from producers and sells them to customers, whether in stores, over the phone, through direct mailings, or over the Internet
  47. au electronic collections of related data that can be accessed by various members of the organization
  48. av -a company (the franchiser) grants a foreign company (the franchisee) the right to use its brand name and to sell its products or services.
    -The franchisee is responsible for all operations but agrees to operate according to a business model established by the franchiser. In turn, the franchiser usually provides advertising, training, and new-product assistance.
    -Franchising is a natural form of global expansion for companies that operate domestically according to a franchise model, including restaurant and hotel chains
  49. aw Ex. Japan - most domestically made consumer goods were priced at artificially high levels inside Japan itself; though Japan manufactures a variety of goods, many of them are made for export. To secure shares in international markets, Japan prices its exported goods competitively. Inside Japan, because competition is limited, producers can put artificially high prices on Japanese-made goods. Due to a number of factors (high demand for a limited supply of imported goods, high shipping and distribution costs, and other costs incurred by importers in a nation that tends to protect its own industries), imported goods are also expensive.
  50. ax -hiring lawyers from the host country who can provide advice on legal issues
    -working with local businesspeople who have experience in complying with regulations and overcoming bureaucratic obstacles
  51. ay entails gathering information on candidates, evaluating their qualifications, and choosing the right one.
  52. az alliances in which the partners fund a separate entity (perhaps a partnership or a corporation) to manage their joint operation.
  53. ba -hired to supplement a company's permanent workforce
    -Most of them are independent contractors, consultants, or freelancers who are paid by the firms that hire them
    -Others are on-call workers who work only when needed
    -others are temporary workers (or "temps") who are employed and paid by outside agencies or contract firms that charge fees to client companies.
  54. bb -Major in international business.
    -Develop your knowledge of international politics, economics, and culture.
    -Study a foreign language.
    -Take advantage of study-abroad opportunities.
    -Interact with fellow students from other cultures.
  55. bc -process of resolving a labor-contract dispute by having a third party study the situation and arrive at a binding agreement
  56. bd -union membership as a percentage of payrolls
    -there's been a steady decline since the mid-1950s, and, today, only about 11 percent of U.S. workers belong to unions
    -Only membership among public workers has grown
  57. be -entry-level jobs usually have to be filled from outside the company
    -Going outside gives you an opportunity to bring fresh ideas and skills into the company
  58. bf The process of integrating all activities in the supply chain; requires a high level of cooperation among all members of the chain (all members must be willing to share information and work together to maximize the final customer's satisfaction)
  59. bg appraisals are often used to determine salaries for the upcoming year; consequently, meetings to discuss performance tend to take on an entirely different dimension: the manager appears judgmental (rather than supportive), and the employee gets defensive; managers are unlikely to give honest feedback
  60. bh -an independent company owned by a foreign firm (called the parent)
    -Not only gives the parent company full access to local markets but also exempts it from any laws or regulations that may hamper the activities of foreign firms.
    -The parent company has tight control over the operations of a subsidiary, but while senior managers from the parent company often oversee operations, many managers and employees are citizens of the host country
  61. bi performing computer tasks using services provided over the Internet
  62. bj The numerous interlocking (and often unstated) personal and family connections that hold people together have an effect on almost all interactions.
  63. bk -English is the international language of business
    -In many countries, only members of the educated classes speak English. The larger population—which is usually the market you want to tap—speaks the local tongue
    -Relying on translators and interpreters: You're privy only to interpretations of the messages that you're getting; maybe you'll misread the subtler intentions of the person with whom you're trying to conduct business.
    -The best way to combat this problem is to study foreign languages
  64. bl a large volume goods are kept over an extended period of time
  65. bm -may be supplemented with formal training programs
    -more common
    -informal
  66. bn workers' pay is based on the amount of crabmeat that's picked from recently cooked crabs.
  67. bo software that locates and displays Web pages
  68. bp -An opportunity for managers and employees to discuss an employee's performance and to set future goals and performance expectations
    -A chance to identify and discuss appropriate training and career-development opportunities for an employee
    -Formal documentation of the evaluation that can be used for salary, promotion, demotion, or dismissal purposes
  69. bq -Legal doctrine that allows an employer to fire an employee at will
    -usually, employers must show just cause for termination, and in some cases, they must furnish written documentation to substantiate the reasons for terminating an employee.
    -If it's a case of poor performance, the employee is generally warned in advance that his or her current level of performance could result in termination.
    -As a rule, managers give employees who have been warned a reasonable opportunity to improve performance.
    -When termination is unavoidable, it should be handled in a private conversation, with the manager explaining precisely why the action is being taken.
  70. br -an agreement among the governments of the United States, Canada, and Mexico to open their borders to unrestricted trade
    -Three very different economies are combined into one economic zone with almost no trade barriers
  71. bs encourages global commerce and lower trade barriers, enforces international rules of trade, and provides a forum for resolving disputes
  72. bt -Producer → Wholesaler → Retailer → Consumer
    -Disadvantage: profit margin will be smaller
    -Advantages: wholesalers make it their business to find the best outlets for the goods in which they specialize; they're often equipped to warehouse goods for suppliers and to transport them from the suppliers' plants to the point of final sale; can make the selling process cost-effective
  73. bu involves the recruitment of qualified candidates and the selection of those who best fit the organization's needs.
  74. bv -Many companies have on-site child care
    -Any employee (whether male or female) who becomes a parent can take two weeks of paid leave. New mothers also get time off through short-term disability benefits
  75. bw -Huge corporations deliver better, cheaper products for customers everywhere; create jobs; and raise the standard of living in developing countries.
    -Globalization increases cross-cultural understanding
  76. bx financial rewards based on performance, whether their own, their employer's, or both
  77. by - HR managers generally post openings internally on electronic job boards or announce them in newsletters or e-mails
    -career sites to facilitate the internal recruiting process
    -Recruiting people from outside the company is a lot like marketing a product to buyers: in effect, you're marketing the virtues of working for your company
  78. bz -They often destroy the livelihoods of home-country workers by moving jobs to developing countries where workers are willing to labor under poor conditions and for less pay.
    -Traditional lifestyles and values are being weakened, and even destroyed, as global brands foster a global culture of American movies; fast food; and cheap, mass-produced consumer products.
    -The demand of MNCs for constant economic growth and cheaper access to natural resources do irreversible damage to the physical environment.
  79. ca -prohibits the distribution of bribes and other favors in the conduct of business
    -kickbacks and bribes are business-as-usual in many nations
  80. cb a commonly used encryption scheme which directs the user's browser to ask a site to authenticate itself.
  81. cc -the difference, over a period of time, between the total flow of money coming into a country and the total flow of money going out
    -the biggest factor in a country's balance of payments is the money that comes in and goes out as a result of imports and exports
    -includes other cash inflows and outflows, such as cash received from or paid for foreign investment, loans, tourism, military expenditures, and foreign aid
  82. cd quality, service, price
  83. ce formal process in which a manager evaluates an employee's work performance
  84. cf -the formal establishment of business operations on foreign soil—the building of factories, sales offices, and distribution networks to serve local markets in a nation other than the company's home country
    -Generally the most expensive commitment that a firm can make to an overseas market, and it's typically driven by the size and attractiveness of the target market.
  85. cg -approach used to resolve a labor-contract dispute by following the recommendation of an impartial third party
  86. ch -encouraged free trade by regulating and reducing tariffs and by providing a forum for resolving trade disputes
    -achieved substantial reductions in tariffs and quotas, and in 1995 its members founded the World Trade Organization
  87. ci lists the duties and responsibilities of a position
  88. cj -Because they can be hired and fired easily, employers can better control labor costs
    -When things are busy, they can add temps, and when business is slow, they can release unneeded workers
    -Temps are often cheaper than permanent workers, particularly because they rarely receive costly benefits
    -Employers can also bring in people with specialized skills and talents to work on special projects without entering into long-term employment relationships
    -companies can "try out" temps
  89. ck unions that serve workers in a particular geographical area
  90. cl -nonunion workers who are willing to cross picket lines to replace strikers
    -Though the law prohibits companies from permanently replacing striking workers, it's often possible for a company to get a court injunction that allows it to bring in replacement workers
  91. cm prohibits employment discrimination against individuals with disabilities
  92. cn local unions are organized into these; assist with local contract negotiations, organize new locals, negotiate contracts for entire industries, and lobby government bodies on issues of importance to organized labor
  93. co -government payments to help offset some of their costs of production
    -Will allow the farmers to lower the price of their goods to a point below that of imported competitors' goods.
    -The lower costs will allow the farmers to export their own goods at attractive, competitive prices
    -Subsidy programs guarantee farmers (including large corporate farms) a certain price for their crops, regardless of the market price
    -Critics argue that in allowing American farmers to export crops at artificially low prices, U.S. agricultural subsidies permit them to compete unfairly with farmers in developing countries
  94. cp -Ex. the distance that one feels comfortable with when talking to someone, and degree of animation can vary within cultures
    -people in some cultures prefer to deliver direct, clear messages, others use language that's subtler or more indirect
    -people in some cultures prefer to deliver direct, clear messages, others use language that's subtler or more indirect
  95. cq motivating them to excel, appraising their performance, compensating them appropriately, and doing what's possible to retain them.
  96. cr only members can access it
  97. cs People with diverse backgrounds bring fresh points of view that can be invaluable in generating ideas and solving problems. In addition, they can be the key to connecting with an ethnically diverse customer base
  98. ct -a group of twenty-eight countries that have eliminated trade barriers among themselves; enhances political and social cooperation and binds its members into a single entity with authority to require them to follow common rules and regulations
  99. cu management tactic of closing the workplace to union; rarely used because it's legal only when unionized workers pose a credible threat to the employer's financial viability
  100. cv -Producer → Retailer → Consumer
    -Advantage: makes products a lot more available to customers
    -Disadvantage: you give up some control over pricing and promotion (the wholesale price you'd get from a retailer is substantially lower than you'd get if you sold directly to customers)
  101. cw -Some analysts think that the IMF is often too harsh in its demands for economic reform; others argue that troubled economies can be turned around only with harsh economic measures.
    -Some observers assert that too many World Bank loans go to environmentally harmful projects, such as the construction of roads through fragile rain forests. Others point to the World Bank's efforts to direct funding away from big construction projects and toward initiatives designed to better the lot of the world's poor
  102. cx the science of developing computer systems that can mimic human behavior.
  103. cy intermediary who buys goods from suppliers and sells them to businesses that will either resell them or use them
  104. cz protects both women and men who do substantially equal work from sex-based pay discrimination.
  105. da The expectation that meetings will start on time and adhere to precise agendas is common in parts of Europe (especially the Germanic countries), as well as in the United States, but elsewhere—say, in Latin America and the Middle East—people are often late to meetings
  106. db -the permanent separation of an employee from a company
    -When a valued employee quits, not only will the firm incur substantial costs to recruit and train a replacement, but it also may suffer temporary declines in productivity and lower morale among remaining employees who have to take on heavier workloads
  107. dc determined by subtracting the value of its imports from the value of its exports
  108. dd -Expert systems (programs that mimic the judgment of experts by following sets of rules that experts would follow)
    -Face-recognition technology
  109. de occurs when the facilities set up in the foreign country replace U.S. manufacturing facilities and are used to produce goods that will be sent back to the United States for sale
  110. df method used by union members to voice displeasure with certain organizations by refusing to buy the company's products and encouraging others to follow suit
  111. dg the way it introduces new employees to the organization and their jobs
  112. dh enables designers to test computer models digitally before moving new products into the prototype stage
  113. di conducting business over the Internet
  114. dj entails all activities involved in getting the right quantity of product to your customers at the right time and at a reasonable cost
  115. dk senior executive who oversees information and telecommunication systems
  116. dl you earn these if you're paid according to the number of hours you work
  117. dm loans money to countries with troubled economies; in exchange for relief in times of financial crisis, borrower countries must institute sometimes painful financial and economic reforms
  118. dn -The poor economy has reduced the number of workers who can become union members.
    -We've shifted from a manufacturing-based economy characterized by large, historically unionized companies to a service-based economy made up of many small firms that are hard to unionize.
    -There are more women in the workforce, and they're more likely to work part-time or intermittently
  119. do the process of searching and analyzing large amounts of data to reveal patterns and trends that can be used to predict future behavior.
  120. dp requires only the manager's subordinates to provide feedback
  121. dq -Identify the human resources currently available in the organization
    -Forecast the human resources needed to achieve the organization's objectives and mission
    -Measure the gap between the two
  122. dr lists the qualifications—skills, knowledge, and abilities—needed to perform the job
  123. ds -relies on a predetermined formula to distribute a share of the company's profits to eligible employees
    -If operating profits fall short of a certain threshold, no one gets anything
  124. dt -gives employees the right to buy a specific number of shares of company stock at a set price on a specified date
    -because employees are rewarded when the company does well, they have a stronger incentive to add value to the company (and so drive up its stock price)
  125. du -occurs when a person is treated unfairly on the basis of a characteristic unrelated to ability.
    -Under federal law, it's illegal to discriminate in recruiting and hiring on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability
  126. dv -Process by which management and union-represented workers settle differences
    -union representatives determine with members what they want in terms of salary increases, benefits, working conditions, and job security. Union officials then tell the employer what its workers want and ask what they're willing to offer. Union officials serve as negotiators to bring the two sides together
  127. dw -an important source of economic assistance for poor and developing countries
    -Loans are made to help countries improve the lives of the poor through community-support programs designed to provide health, nutrition, education, infrastructure, and other social services
  128. dx They benefit from specialization, focusing on what they do best, and trading the output to other countries for what they do best.
  129. dy -both you and your employer have the right to terminate the employment relationship at any time.
    -You can quit whenever you want, but your employer can fire you whenever it wants
  130. dz -union worker complaints on contract related matters
    -When nonunion workers feel that they've been treated unfairly, they can take up the matter with supervisors
    -When unionized workers have complaints, they can call on union representatives to resolve the problem, in conjunction with supervisory personnel.
    -If the outcome isn't satisfactory, the union can take the problem to higher-level management.
    -If there's still no resolution, the union may submit the grievance to an arbitrator.
  131. ea -If it buys more than it sells, it has an unfavorable balance
    -They can be positive if a country's economy is strong enough both to keep growing and to generate the jobs and incomes that permit its citizens to buy the best the world has to offer.
    -Investment guru Warren Buffet, for example, cautions that no country can continuously sustain large and burgeoning trade deficits. Because creditor nations will eventually stop taking IOUs from debtor nations, and when that happens, the national spending spree will have to cease.
  132. eb -must be able to perform the duties listed in the job description and must possess the skills, knowledge, and abilities detailed in the job specification
    -must be a good "fit" for the company.
  133. ec - A company that operates in many countries
    -They often adjust their operations, products, marketing, and distribution to mesh with the environments of the countries in which they operate
    -While corporate headquarters still maintain a fair amount of control, home-country managers keep a suitable distance by relying on modern telecommunications. Today, fewer managers are dispatched from headquarters; MNCs depend instead on local talent. Not only does decentralized organization speed up and improve decision making, but it also allows an MNC to project the image of a local company.
  134. ed Consists of all actions that an organization takes to attract, develop, and retain quality employees.
  135. ee setting guidelines that allow employees to designate starting and quitting times
  136. ef selling domestic products to foreign customers
  137. eg compensation other than salaries, hourly wages, or financial incentive; expensive.
  138. eh shipping goods from manufacturing facilities to retailers or customers
  139. ei Without impediments to trade, countries can compete freely. Each nation can focus on what it does best and bring its goods to a fair and open world market. When this happens, the world will prosper
  140. ej fixes an upper limit on the amount of a good that can be imported during the given period.
  141. ek the entire range of activities involved in producing and distributing products, from purchasing raw materials, transforming raw materials into finished goods, storing finished goods, and distributing them to customers
  142. el a wholesaler or retailer who helps move products from the original source to end user
  143. em -sends a positive signal to employees that they can move up in the company—a strong motivation tool and a reward for good performance
    -because an internal candidate is a known quantity, it's easier to predict his or her success in a new position
    - it's cheaper
  144. en union tactic of parading with signs outside a facility to publicize a strike
  145. eo -Enhancing marketing efforts
    -Building sales and market share
    -Improving products
    -Reducing production and distribution costs
    -Sharing technology
  146. ep -Producer → Consumer
    -Most service companies use this channel
    -Many business-to-business sales take place through direct contact between producer and buyer
    -The Internet has caused the number of direct selling companies to increase
    -Advantage: a certain degree of control over prices and selling activities (you aren't dependent on an intermediary)
    -Disadvantage: you must commit your own resources to the selling process
  147. eq If a country sells more products than it buys, it has a favorable balance
  148. er -a nation has this if (1) it's the only source of a particular product or (2) it can make more of a product using the same amount of or fewer resources than other countries
    -Unless an absolute advantage is based on some limited natural resource, it seldom lasts.
  149. es -policies that restrict trade
    -Ex. push up the price of imports or lower the cost of local goods
  150. et -Trade protect specific industries and their workers from foreign competition
    -Imports can be restricted to give new or struggling industries a chance to get established
    -Protectionism can shield industries that are vital to their national defense
  151. eu the process of physically moving or carrying goods during production, warehousing, and distribution (companies can automate the process)
  152. ev -companies can reap substantial benefits from programs that help employees balance their work and nonwork lives: they can increase job satisfaction and employee productivity and reduce turnover
    -what these employees value most of all is control over their time. In particular, they want predictable schedules that allow them to plan social and personal activities
  153. ew a centralized database in which data from several databases are consolidated and organized so that they can be easily analyzed.
  154. ex integrates various operations (from design through manufacturing) with functional activities ranging from order taking to final shipment. The CIM system may also control industrial robots—computer-run machines that can perform repetitive or dangerous tasks; an expansion of a CAD/CAM system
  155. ey provides factual information on your education and work background
  156. ez -Presenting info
    -Selling products
    -Distributing digital products
    -Acquiring goods and services
  157. fa for economic or political reasons, bans the import or export of certain goods to or from a specific country
  158. fb many companies, KPMG allows employees to aggregate all paid days off and use them in any way they want
  159. fc -A denial-of-service attack, for example, prevents a Web server from servicing authorized users; the culprit demands a ransom to stop the attack.
    -Companies that use the Internet to create and sell intellectual property (such as songs, movies, and software) face the problem of piracy.
    -The theft of digital products, which can be downloaded and copied almost instantly over the Internet, not only cheats the individuals and organizations that create them, but also reduces sales and shrinks corporate profits.
  160. fd the process of getting products from producers to customers; entails warehousing, materials handling, and transportation
  161. fe protects individuals who are forty or older.
  162. ff the process of identifying suitable candidates and encouraging them to apply for openings in the organization.
  163. fg -union tactic by which workers walk away from their jobs and refuse to return until a labor-management dispute has been resolved
    -sends a strong message to management, but workers don't get paid when they're on strike. Unions often ease the financial pressure on strikers by providing cash payments
  164. fh -an agreement between two companies (or a company and a nation) to pool resources in order to achieve business goals that benefit both partners
    -Might be done if a company wants to do business in a foreign country but lacks the expertise or resources, or if the target nation's government doesn't allow foreign companies to operate within its borders unless it has a local partner
  165. fi the process of encoding data so that only individuals (or computers) armed with a secret code (or key) can decode it; protects computer-stored info
  166. fj groups of countries that have joined together to allow goods and services to flow without restrictions across their mutual borders
  167. fk -Revenues are low
    -A particular job is being phased out
    -An employee has failed to meet job requirements
  168. fl the policy of enhancing a job by adding tasks at similar skill levels; adds variety without entailing higher skill levels
  169. fm -Malicious programs (viruses and worms)
    -Unauthorized parties may gain access to restricted company Web sites in order to steal funds or goods.
    -Firewalls—software and hardware systems that prevent unauthorized users from accessing computer networks—help to reduce the risks of doing business online.
  170. fn not only determine the steps needed to produce components but also instruct machines to do the necessary work
  171. fo you're earning this if you're paid for fulfilling the responsibilities of a position—regardless of the number of hours required to do it
  172. fp A means of reducing materials-handling costs; companies require suppliers to deliver their facilities just in time for them to go into the production process