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  • Human Resource Management

    -All actions that an organization takes to attract, develop, and retain quality employees
    -Attracting talented employees involves the recruitment of qualified candidates and the selection of those who best fit the organization's needs
    -Development encompasses both new-employee orientation and the training and development of current workers
    -Retaining good employees means motivating them to excel, appraising their performance, compensating them appropriately, and doing what's possible to retain them

    Strategic Human Resource Planning

    The process of developing a plan for satisfying an organization's human resources needs

    Job Analysis

    Identification of the tasks, responsibilities, and skills of a job, as well as the knowledge and abilities needed to perform it

    Job Description

    Outline of the duties and responsibilities of a position

    Job Specification

    Detailed list of the qualifications - skills, knowledge, and abilities - needed to perform the job

    Recruiting

    Process of identifying suitable candidates and encouraging them to apply for openings in the organization

    Discrimination

    Occurs when a person is treated unfairly on the basis of characteristic unrelated to ability

    Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

    Federal agency in charge of enforcing federal laws on employment discrimination, includes:
    -Title VII of the the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Sexual harassment is also a violation of Title VII
    -The Equal Pay Act of 1963, which protects both women and men who do substantially equal work from sex-based pay discrimination
    -The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1964, which protects individuals who are forty or older
    -Title I and Title V of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, which prohibits employment discrimination against individuals with disabilities

    Selection

    Process of gathering information on candidates, evaluating their qualifications, and choosing the right one

    Application

    Document completed by a job applicant that provides factual information on the person's education and work background

    Interview

    Formal meeting during which employer learns more about an applicant and the applicant learns more about the prospective employer

    Contingent Workers

    Temporary or part-time workers hired to supplement a company's permanent work force

    Temporary Workers (Temps)

    Employed and paid by outside agencies or contract firms that charge fees to client companies

    Positives of Temp Work

    -Because they can be hired and fired easily, employers can better control labor costs
    -When things are busy, they can add temps, and when business is slow, they can release unneeded workers
    -Temps are often cheaper than permanent workers, especially because they rarely receive costly benefits
    -Employers can bring in people with specialized skills and talents to work on special projects without entering into long-term employment relationships
    -Companies can try out temps

    Negatives of Temp Work

    -Increased training costs and decreased loyalty to company
    -Many employers believe because temps are usually less committed to company goals than permanent workers, productivity suffers

    Orientation

    Activities involved in introducing new employees to the organization and their new jobs

    Off-The-Job Training

    Formal employee training that occurs in a location away from the office

    On-The-Job Training

    Employee training (often informal) that occurs while the employee is on the job

    Job Redesign

    Management strategy used to make jobs more interesting and challenging

    Job Rotation

    Job redesign strategy that allows employees to rotate from one job to another on a systematic basis, eventually cycling back to their original tasks

    Job Enlargement

    The policy of enhancing a job by adding tasks at a similar skill levels

    Job Enrichment

    Practice of adding tasks that increase both responsibility and opportunity for growth. Provides the kinds of benefits that contribute to job satisfaction: stimulating work, sense of personal achievement, self-esteem, recognition, and a chance to reach your potential

    Flextime

    Alternative work arrangement that allows employees to designate starting and quitting times

    Job Sharing

    Work arrangement in which 2 people share one full-time position, splitting the salary and benefits of the position as each handles half the job

    Telecommuting

    Regularly working from home, connected to the office by computer, fax, and phone

    Wages

    Compensation paid to the employees based on the number of hours they work

    Salary

    Compensation paid for fulfilling the responsibilities of the position regardless of the number of hours required to do it

    Piecework

    Compensation paid to workers according to the quantity of a product they produce or sell

    Commission

    Compensation paid to employees based on the dollar amount of sales they make

    Incentive Programs

    Programs designed to reward employees for good performance

    Bonuses

    Annual income given to employees (in addition to salaries) based on company-wide performance

    Profit-Sharing Plan

    Incentive program that uses a pre-determined formula to distribute a share of the company's profits to eligible employees

    Stock-Option Plans

    Incentive program that allows eligible employees to buy a specific number of shares of company stock set at a set price on a specified date

    Benefits

    Compensation other than salaries, wages, or financial incentives: Includes legally required benefits (such as Social Security and Medicare, unemployment insurance, workers' compensation), paid time off (vacations, holidays, sick leave), insurance (health benefits, life insurance, disability insurance), and retirement benefits

    Performance Appraisals

    Formal process in which a manager evaluates an employee's work performance, done on a semiannual or annual basis, 3 step process:
    1. Set goals and performance expectations and specify the criteria that will be used to measure performance
    2. Complete a written evaluation that rates performance according to stipulated criteria
    3. Meet with the employee to discuss the evaluation and suggest means of improving performance

    360 Degree Feedback

    Ensures that employees get feedback from all directions - from supervisors, reporting subordinates, coworkers, and even customers

    Upward Feedback

    Requires only manager's subordinates to provide feedback

    Turnover

    The permanent separation of an employee from a company

    Downsizing

    Cutting costs by eliminating jobs

    Employment-At-Will

    Legal doctrine that allows an employer to fire an employee at will

    Labor Union

    Organized group of workers that bargains with employers to improve its members' pay, job security, and working conditions

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of International Organizations (AFL-CIO)

    Provides assistance to member unions and serves as the principal political organ for organized labor

    Collective Bargaining

    Process of settling differences and establishing mutually agreeable conditions under which employees will work

    Mediation

    When an impartial third party makes recommendations for reaching an agreement

    Arbitration

    When a third party imposes a binding agreement

    Grievances

    Complaints over contract-related matters that are resolved by union representatives and employee supervisors

    Strike

    Workers leave their jobs until the issue is settled

    Picketing

    Workers congregate outside the workplace to publicize their position

    Boycotting

    Workers and other consumers are urged to refrain from buying an employer's products

    Lockout

    Closing the workplace to workers

    Strikebreakers

    Nonunion workers who are willing to cross picket lines to replace strikers

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