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  • asset valuation

    a method that analyzes the underlying value of a business's assets as a basis for negotiating a price

    barriers to entry

    the factors that contribute to the ease or difficulty of a new competitor joining an established market

    cash flow valuation

    a method of calculating the worth of a business by using projected future cash flows and the time value of money

    competitive strategy

    the combination of the business definition with its competitive advantage

    core values

    the fundamental ethical and moral philosophy and beliefs that form the foundation of the organization and provide broad guidance for all decision making

    cost of goods sold (COGS)

    the cost of producing tangible item

    cost of services sold (COSS)

    the cost of delivering a service


    a term for money when it is exchanged internationally

    direct labor

    employees that actively produce or deliver a product or service

    earnings valuation

    a method that assesses the value of a business based on a stream of earning that is multiplied either by an agreed-upon fact (the capitalization factor) or by the price/earnings ratio (for a publicly traded company)

    economics of one unit of sale (EOU)

    the amount of gross profit that is earned that is earned on each unit of the product or service a business sells

    foreign exchange (FX) rate

    the relative value of one currency to another

    gross profit

    total sales revenue minus total cost of goods sold


    a group of people or organizations that may be interested in buying a given product or service, has the resources to purchase it, and is permitted by law and regulation to do so


    a plan for how an organization or individual intends to outdo competitors


    the specific ways in which a business carries out its strategy

    unique selling proposition (USP)

    the distinctive feature and benefit that set a company apart from its competition

    unit of sale

    the basic unit of the product or service sold by the business

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