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13 Multiple choice questions

  1. rotate about longitudinal axis
    leading edge down near top of stroke and up near bottom of stroke
  2. Paleoptera, cannot flex wings over body
    Neoptera, can flex wings over body
  3. power downstroke
    sclerites up and wing tips down
  4. monophyletic
  5. power upstroke
    sclerites down and wing tips up
  6. relative to each other by system of joints & hinges
  7. elastic energy stored
  8. protection (tegmina, elytra, and hemielytra)
    create air bubble
    soud production
    temperature control
    sensory perception
  9. prevents mechanical damage and less obvious to predators
  10. Reduction in wing venation increased flexibility of wing
    fusion provides strengthening
  11. increased wing length and flapping movements ALSO increased
    inertial forces
  12. increase diversity, dispersal, and habitat exploited
    avoid ground predators
  13. provoked by necessity to fix wings
    allowed complex wing movements