30 - Ecology flashcards |

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Studies of ecological phenomena within a crop field


unit of ecological studies in agriculture

Agroecosystem creation

by human effor

Agroecosystem continuity

may lack temporal continuity

Agroecosystem plant selection

by humans

Agroecosystem diversity

reduced usually to 1

Agroecosystem phenology


Agroecosystem nutrients


Agroecosystem problems

insect, disease, and weed

Monoculture yield


Monoculture labour


Insecticide development

introduced during WWII

Insecticide problems

resistance, pest resurgence, secondary outbreaks

reasons for ecological considerations in modern agriculture

insecticide resistance
secondary outbreaks
resurgence of pests
increased legislation
public pressure

Ecological considerations for agriculture and integrated
pest management

reduce inputs
maximize efficiency
sustainable production


no of individual/unit of measure


spatial arrangement of the insects


immigration into an area or emigration area

age distribution

proportion of individuals in different age groups at any given time


single generation in a year


two or more generations in a year

natality - birth rates

reproductive potential with the fertility data

mortality - death rates

mortality is caused by numerous factors

abiotic factors to death

temperature, moisture, weather, climate

biotic factors to death

predators, parasites, disease, competition

Life tables

convenient means of compiling information


age interval


living at age


death at age


factors responsible for mortality


rate of mortality


net reproductive rate

length of developmental period

time to complete one generation

developmental threshold

temperature at which 0 development occurs


egg production by the female

sex ratio

proportion of males to females

reproductive potential

number of individuals fecundity sex factor * number of generations

sex factor

no of females/total population


reproductive potential - environmental resistance


low fecundity and long developmental time


high fecundity and short developmental time

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