30 - Ecology flashcards |

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Agroecology

Studies of ecological phenomena within a crop field

Agroecosystem

unit of ecological studies in agriculture

Agroecosystem creation

by human effor

Agroecosystem continuity

may lack temporal continuity

Agroecosystem plant selection

by humans

Agroecosystem diversity

reduced usually to 1

Agroecosystem phenology

uniform

Agroecosystem nutrients

added

Agroecosystem problems

insect, disease, and weed

Monoculture yield

abundant

Monoculture labour

non-intensive

Insecticide development

introduced during WWII

Insecticide problems

resistance, pest resurgence, secondary outbreaks

reasons for ecological considerations in modern agriculture

insecticide resistance
secondary outbreaks
resurgence of pests
pollution
increased legislation
public pressure

Ecological considerations for agriculture and integrated
pest management

reduce inputs
maximize efficiency
sustainable production

density

no of individual/unit of measure

Dispersion

spatial arrangement of the insects

dispersal

immigration into an area or emigration area

age distribution

proportion of individuals in different age groups at any given time

univoltine

single generation in a year

multivoltine

two or more generations in a year

natality - birth rates

reproductive potential with the fertility data

mortality - death rates

mortality is caused by numerous factors

abiotic factors to death

temperature, moisture, weather, climate

biotic factors to death

predators, parasites, disease, competition

Life tables

convenient means of compiling information

x

age interval

lx

living at age

dx

death at age

dxF

factors responsible for mortality

100qx

rate of mortality

Ro

net reproductive rate

length of developmental period

time to complete one generation

developmental threshold

temperature at which 0 development occurs

fecundity

egg production by the female

sex ratio

proportion of males to females

reproductive potential

number of individuals fecundity sex factor * number of generations

sex factor

no of females/total population

abundance

reproductive potential - environmental resistance

K-strategists

low fecundity and long developmental time

r-strategists

high fecundity and short developmental time

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