15 Flight flashcards |

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Flight status

monophyletic

Two lines

Paleoptera, cannot flex wings over body
Neoptera, can flex wings over body

Advantages of flight

increase diversity, dispersal, and habitat exploited
avoid ground predators

Wing Length

increased wing length and flapping movements ALSO increased
inertial forces

Wing venation

Reduction in wing venation increased flexibility of wing
fusion provides strengthening

Scleritization of wing base

provoked by necessity to fix wings
allowed complex wing movements

sclerites move

relative to each other by system of joints & hinges

advantages of neoptera

prevents mechanical damage and less obvious to predators

wing beat patterns

rotate about longitudinal axis
leading edge down near top of stroke and up near bottom of stroke

dersoventral muscle

power upstroke
sclerites down and wing tips up

dorsolongitudinal muscle

power downstroke
sclerites up and wing tips down

click mechanism

elastic energy stored

other wing functions

protection (tegmina, elytra, and hemielytra)
create air bubble
colouration
soud production
temperature control
sensory perception

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