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  1. Elements of ReasoningPurposes, questions, assumptions, implications, information, concepts, inferences, and points of view. Also knows as the parts of thinking or the fundamental structures of thought.

          

  2. Distinguishing between Inferences and AssumptionsAre relative not absolute.

          

  3. ImplicationsConsequences of reasoning. What follows reasoning.

          

  4. InferencesTo come to conclusions. Begins with information or misinformation and concludes something else based on that information.

          

  5. PrecisionWhen reasoning is specific, exact, and sufficiently detailed. "I am going to the party at 8 o'clock" vs "I am going to the party soon."

          

  6. AssumptionsEncompass everything taken for granted as true in order to figure out something else and are always present in any form of reasoning.

          

  7. AccuracyTo represent something as it actually is. Common barriers include presuming one's own thoughts are automatically this, presuming other's thoughts are this when they are in disagreement with one's own, and failing to question statements that validate what one already believes.

          

  8. RelevanceSomething that pertains to the problem at hand. When thinking focuses on what is important -- what matters -- in understanding the problem at hand. Excludes what properly should be disregarded.

          

  9. Standards, Elements, and Traits InteractionsThe standards (clarity, accuracy, etc.) must be applied to the elements (purposes, questions, etc.) as the critical thinker learns to develop intellectual traits (intellectual humility, intellectual empathy, etc.).

          

  10. Standards of Critical ThinkingPurposes, questions, assumptions, implications, information, concepts, inferences, and points of view. Also knows as the parts of thinking or the fundamental structures of thought.

          

  11. Thinking through ImplicationsDistinguishing between what a situation actually implies and what may be inferred from it. Critical thinkers always strive to infer only what is implied, no more and no less.

          

  12. ConceptsPlumbing beneath the surface of an issue to identify underlying complexities and address those complexities in an intellectually responsible way.

          

  13. Taking Command of ConceptsGeneral categories or ideas by which information is interpreted or classified when used in thinking.

          

  14. QuestionWhen reasoning is specific, exact, and sufficiently detailed. "I am going to the party at 8 o'clock" vs "I am going to the party soon."

          

  15. InformationStatistical data, observations, testimony, etc.

          

  16. Thinking to Some PurposeDistinguishing between what a situation actually implies and what may be inferred from it. Critical thinkers always strive to infer only what is implied, no more and no less.

          

  17. Thinking Across Points of ViewThinking this is how I see things from some point of view instead of this is how things are. Recognizing that situations can be different when viewed from a different viewpoint.

          

  18. Activating IgnoranceMentally taking in and actively using false information.

          

  19. ClarityEnables one to see where one's thinking is leading. Thinking is clear when it is easily understood. It is impossible to determine accuracy or relevance without this.

          

  20. Distinctions between the Elements of ReasoningAre relative not absolute.

          

  21. ReasoningThe mind drawing conclusions on the basis of reasons.

          

  22. LogicPlumbing beneath the surface of an issue to identify underlying complexities and address those complexities in an intellectually responsible way.

          

  23. DepthReasoning that considers the issue at hand from every relevant viewpoint, including alternate or opposing perspectives.

          

  24. SignificanceTo come to conclusions. Begins with information or misinformation and concludes something else based on that information.

          

  25. PurposeThe goal or objective of reasoning. It describes the desired outcome or intent.

          

  26. Assessing InformationSeeking trustworthy information sources, being vigilant about the information sources used, and being alert to the use one makes of one's own experience, which could be biased, distorted, or self-deluded.

          

  27. BreadthReasoning that considers the issue at hand from every relevant viewpoint, including alternate or opposing perspectives.

          

  28. FairnessThinking that is justified, that is thought fairly in context. Thinking that satisfies all other fundamental intellectual standards satisfies the standard of justifiability.

          

  29. Points of ViewTo come to conclusions. Begins with information or misinformation and concludes something else based on that information.